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Chapter 2

MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Absenteeism, Conscientiousness, Extraversion And Introversion


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHB02H3
Professor
Samantha Montes
Chapter
2

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Chapter Two- Personality and Learning
What is Personality?
Personality Relatively stable set of psychological characteristics influencing way
individual interacts with their environment and how they feel, think & behave
Summarizes persons style of dealing with the world
Consists of number of dimensions determined in complex way by ones
Genetic predisposition
Long-term learning history
Susceptible to change through adult learning experiences
Personality and Organizational Behaviour
Believed to be important factor in many areas of OB
Dispositional Approach: People have stable traits that influence their attitudes &
behaviours
People are predisposed to behave in a certain way
Focus on individual dispositions and personality
States that individuals possess stable traits or characteristic that influence their
attitudes and behaviours
Situational Approach: Characteristics of org-setting influence
feelings/attitudes/behaviors
Factors in the work environment that might predict and explain organizational
behavior
Characteristics of organizational setting ie. Rewards, punishment, influence ppls
feelings, attitudes and behaviour
Interactionist Approach: OB is a fn of both dispositions & situation
Need to know about personality & work-setting
Currently believe: both approaches important for predicting & understanding OB
There is no best personality managers need to appreciate diversity
Key : Fitting right person for the right job & exposure to different MGT-styles
Considers the role of personality in different situations (weak or strong)
Extend to which personality influences peoples attitudes and behaviour depends on
situation
Weak Situations
Unclear how person should behave
Personality has most impact in weak situations
Loosely defined roles, few rules & weak rewards/punishments
Personality has most impact
Strong Situations
Clear expectations for appropriate behavior
More defined roles, rules & contingencies
Personality has less impact
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The Five-Factor Model of Personality
1.Extraversion- Extent person is outgoing vs. shy (introverts) ie. Extraverts enjoy social
situations managerial quality
Linked with absenteeism
Predictor of job and life satisfaction
2.Emotional Stability/ Neuroticism- Degree person has appropriate emotional control
High emotional control /low neuroticism-confident and have high self esteem
Low emotional stability/how neuroticism-tend toward self doubt and
depression
Strongest predictor of motivation and job satisfaction
3.Agreeableness- Extent person is friendly & approachable
more agreeable ppl are warm and considerate
less agreeable ppl are cold and aloof
Predictor of job and life satisfaction
4.Conscientiousness- Degree person is responsible & achievement-oriented
Strongest predictor of overall job performance managerial quality
More conscientious ppl are dependable and positively motivated
Less conscientious ppl are unreliable
Also for counterproductive behaviours such as theft, absenteeism and disciplinary
problems
Strong predictor of motivation
Predictor of job and life satisfaction
5.Openness to Experience: Extent person thinks flexibly & receptive to new ideas
More open ppl tend toward creativity and innovation
Less open ppl favour status quo
Extraversion Emotional
StabilityAgreeableness Conscientiousness Openness to
Experience
Sociable,
Talkative
vs.
Withdraw, Shy
Stable,
Confidence
vs.
Depressed,
Anxious
Tolerance,
Cooperative
Vs.
Cold, Rude
Dependable,
Responsible
Vs.
Careless, Impulsive
Curious,
Original
Vs.
Dull,
Unimaginative
High: Good for
managers
Links: +ve
Absenteeism
High: Good for
salespeople
Links: Work retention &
Attendance
Dimensions relatively independent
Cross-Culturally: Holds up well
Traits in top half Better Job Performance
Linked to work & organizational behaviors
Related to work motivation
Neuroticism (-) & conscientiousness (+): strongest predictors of motivation
Related to job satisfaction
Neuroticism (-) also the strongest
Conscientiousness (+) & extraversion (+), less-so agreeableness (+)
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NOT: openness to experience
Better team-performance (i.e. cooperativeness, concern & courtesy)
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Emotional Stability
Job Search Intensity
Extraversion
Conscientiousness
Openness to Experience
Agreeableness
Neuroticism (-)
High conscientiousness & extraversion with low neuroticism Higher Income &
Occupational Status
Even with influence of metal-ability
Related to vocative interests & preferences
Extraversion Enterprising & social orientation
Openness to Experience Artistic & Investigative orientation
Locus of Control
Locus of Control Belief whether behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces
Internals see stronger links between effort & performance levels –believe that opportunity
to control their own behaviour resides within themselves
Perceive that organization will notice high performance and reward it
Most likely to be aware of and to take advantage of information that will enable
them to perform effectively
Believe to be in control of everything that happens to them
Higher job satisfaction
Higher Income
Rise higher in organization
Perceive less stress
Do more careful career planning
Externals-believe that external forces determine their behaviour
Sees the world to be unpredictable
Luck, fate or powerful ppl control their own destinies
Specific personality characteristics that influence OB
1.Locus of Control
2.Self-Monitoring
3.Self-esteem
Self-Monitoring
Self-Monitoring Extent people observe & regulate how they appear & behave in social
settings & relationships
High Self-Monitors
Take great care to observe and control the image they project
Behave like actors
Concern for socially appropriate behaviors
Regulates behavior according to social & interpersonal cues
3
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