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Chapter 8

Chapter_8


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHB02H3
Professor
Samantha Montes
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8: Social influence, socialization, and culture
Social Influence in organizations
Groups exert influence over the attitudes and behavior of their individual members
as a result of social influences, people often feel or act differently from how they
would as independent operators
Social settings especially in groups, people are highly dependent on others, this
dependence sets the stage for influence to occur
Information Dependence and effect dependence
Information dependence: reliance on others for information about how to think,
feel and act
People are often motivated to compare their own thoughts, feelings and actions with
those of others as a means of acquiring info about their adequacy
The effects of social info can be very strong and exerting influence over others as
objective reality
Group members are sensitive to the rewards and punishments it has at its disposal
People are dependent on the effects of their behavior as determined by the rewards
and punishments provided by others
Effect dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and
punishment
Effect dependence involves two complementary process
1)The group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and
act because such matter an affect goal attainment
2)The member frequently desires the approval of the group
Managers rewards and punishments: Promotions, Raises, Assignment of more or
less favourable tasks
Cooperative behavior with Praise, Friendship, Helping hand on the job
Lack of cooperation might result in Nagging, Harassment, Name calling, Social
isolation
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Social influence in action
One most obvious consequence of info and effect dependence is the tendency for
group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the
group
Much of the info and many of the effect on which group members are dependent are
oriented toward enforcing group norms
Motives for social conformity
1)Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire
rewards or avoid punishment
oIs the simplest, most direct motive for conformity to group norms
oIt primarily involves effect dependence
oAlthough they adjust to the norms they do not subscribe to the beliefs, values
and attitudes that underlie the norm ie. Young children behave only because
of external forces i.e convicts conform to formal prison norms out of
compliance
2)Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those
who promote the norm are attractive or similar to one-self
oThe individual identifies with the supporters and sees themselves as similar
to them and although there are elements of effect dependence , info
dependence is important I.e. if someone is similar to you then you will be
motivate to reply on them for into
oi.e. new promoted executive might attempt to dress an talk like her successful
admired boss
3)Internalization: conformity to a social norm promoted by true acceptance of the
beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm
oThe conformity occurs because it is seen as right not because it achieves
rewards, avoids punishment or pleases others
oConformity is due to internal, rather than external forces
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oi.e. army officer might come to support the strict discipline of the military
because it seems right and proper not because colleagues support such
discipline
The Subtle power of compliance
doubting group member is motivated to conform only in the compliance mode , he or
she really does not support the belief, value and attitude structure of the norm but
complies to avoid trouble or for rewards
to reduce dissonant one way is to cease conformity which may require the person to
adopt an isolated or scapegoat roles which are equally unpleasant prospects (esp.
likely if the behavior is at great variance with ones values or moral standards)
another method is to gradually accept the beliefs, values and attitudes that support
the norm in question (esp. likely when the behavior is not so discrepant with ones
current value system)
Organizational socialization
socialization: the process by which people learn the norms and roles that are
necessary to function in a group or organization
a learning process in which new members must acquire knowledge, change their
attitudes and perform new behaviours
the primary means by which organizations communicate the culture and values to
new members aka onboarding
socialization methods -> proximal socialization outcomes -> distal socialization
outcomes
socialization methods:
1) realistic job previews
2)employee orientation programs
3)socialization tactics
4) mentoring
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