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Chapter 9


Management (MGH)
Course Code
Samantha Montes

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Chapter Nine- Leadership
What is Leadership?
Leadership-the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of
others in an organizational context
Effective leadership exerts influence in a way that achieves organizational goals by enhancing
productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the workforce
Leadership involves going beyond formal role requirements to influence others
Indiv. might emerge to occupy informal leadership roles since they have no formal
authorityreply on being well liked or perceived to have higher skills or influence
Are Leaders Born? Search for Leadership Traits
Research on Leadership Traits
Traits- indiv. characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality
Traits associated w/ leadership
emotional stability
motivation to lead
honesty and integrity
need for achievement
Big Five- agreeableness, extraversion and openness to experience are related to leadership
Most effective leaders have high levels of emotional intelligencealso related to job
Limitation of the Trait Approach
It is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for
leadership produces the traits
Traits approach fails to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs
Traits are only preconditions for certain actions that a leader must take to be
successpossessing appropriate traits for leadership make it possible that certain actions will
be taken to be successful, BUT traits alone is not sufficient for successful leadership

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Lessons from Emergent Leadership
Leadership is a form of influence; 1 way to influence is to TALK A LOT
Task leader- a leader who is concerned w. accomplishing a task by organizing others,
planning strategy and dividing labour
Social-emotional leader- a leader who is concerned w. reducing tension, patching up
disagreements, setting arguments and maintaining morale
oInfluence is more subtle than task influence
Task and social-emotional leadership are two important functions that must occur in group
Group must be structured and organized to accomplish its task
Organizations almost never appoint two formal leaders to a work groupthus, appointed
leader must juggle the demands of the two distinctive role
Behaviour of Assigned Leaders
Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration-extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and
respect for employees
oSeen as friendly, egalitarian, expresses appreciation and is protective of group welfare
oRelated to social-emotional function in emergent leadership
Initiating structure-degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment
oClearly defines and organizes his/her role and the roles of followers, stresses standard
procedures and schedules the work to be done and assigns employees to particular
oRelated to task function
Consequences of Consideration and Structure
Both consideration and structure positive to employees motivation, job satisfaction, and leader
Consideration more strongly related to satisfaction, motivation and leader effectiveness
Structure related to leader job performance and group performance

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When employees under high degree of pressure due to deadlines, unclear task, external
threat internal structure increases satisfaction and performance
When task is intrinsically satisfying consideration and structure is reduced
When goals and methods of performance is clear, consideration used to promote employee
When employee lack knowledge on how to perform job, consideration less important than
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours
Leader reward behaviour-provides employees w/ compliments, tangible benefits made
contingent on performance
oEmployees should perform at a high level and experience job satisfaction
oEmployees have a clear picture of what is expected of them
oUnderstand that positive outcomes occur if they achieve these expectations
Leader punishment behaviour- leaders use of reprimands or unfavourable task
assignments and the active withholding of rewards
Both are very effective
Contingent reward found to be positively related to employees perceptions (trust), attitudes
(job satisfaction and commitment) and behaviour (effort and performance)
Contingent punishment related to employee perceptions, attitudes and behaviour
Noncontingent punishment behaviour is negatively related
Relationship were much stronger when rewards and punishment were made contingent on
employee behaviour
Key to effective rewards and punishment is that it be administered contingent on employee
behaviour and performance
Situational Theories of Leadership
Situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts occur
Effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the setting
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