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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Julie Mc Carthy

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Chapter 5 Theories of Work Motivation Notes
What is Motivation?
Basic Characteristics of Motivation
x motivation Æ the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
x the first aspect is the strength of the person’s work-related behaviour, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job
x the second characteristic is the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks
x effort and persistence refer mainly to the quantity of work an individual produces; however, the quality is equally important
x thus, the third characteristic is the direction of the person’s work-related behaviour
x in other words, does the worker channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization
x thus, motivation means working smart as well as working hard
x ultimately, all motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
x intrinsic motivation Æ motivation that stems from the direct relationship between worker and task; it is usually self-applied
x feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, competence derived from performing one’s job are examples of intrinsic
motivators, as is sheer interest in the job itself; off the job, avid participation in sports and hobbies are examples as well
x extrinsic motivation Æ motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others
x pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision are examples of extrinsic motivators
x obviously, employers cannot package all conceivable motivators as neatly as these definitions suggest
x self-determination theory (SDT) Æ theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled
x autonomous motivation Æ when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
x controlled motivation Æ when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward
x however, sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual internalizes the value or attitudes
associated with a behaviour and, as a result, no longer requires the extrinsic factor to motivate him/her to perform the behaviour
x thus, a key aspect of SDT is the extent to which one’s motivation is autonomous versus controlled
Motivation and Performance
x performance Æ the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization
x while motivation clearly contributes, relationship is not one-to-one because a number of other factors also influence performance
x two forms of intelligence that are particularly important for performance are general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence
x general cognitive ability Æ a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources
x it reflects an individual’s overall capacity and efficiency for processing info, and it includes a number of cognitive abilities, such
as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities, that are required to perform mental tasks
x cognitive ability is usually measured by a number of specific aptitude tests that measure these abilities
x emotional intelligence (EI) Æ the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions
x it involves ability to perceive and express, assimilate in thought, understand and reason, and manage in oneself and others
x individuals high in EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as
a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action
x four-branch model—(1) perceiving emotions precisely in self and others; (2) using emotions to help thinking; (3) understanding
emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions; and (4) managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
x emotional intelligence was the most important for job performance of employees with lower levels of cognitive ability and of les
importance for the job performance of employees with high levels of cognitive ability
Need Theories of Work Motivation
x need theories Æ motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be
motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance
x needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals satisfy by acquiring incentives or achieving goals
x it is the behaviour stimulated by this acquisition process that reveals the motivational character of needs:
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
x according to Abraham Maslow, humans have 5 sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy, beginning with the most basic
x these include: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belongingness needs; (4) esteem needs; (5) self-actualization needs
1) Physiological needs. These include the needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive, such as food, water, oxygen,
and shelter. Organizational factors that might satisfy these needs include the minimum pay necessary for survival and
working conditions that promote existence.
2) Safety needs. These include needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured and ordered environment.
Organizational conditions might include safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules and regulations, job security, a
comfortable work environment, pension and insurance plans, and pay above the minimum needed for survival.
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3) Belongingness needs. These include needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship, and friendship.
Organizational factors that might these needs include the opportunity to interact with others on the job, friendly and
supportive supervision, opportunity for teamwork, and opportunity to develop new social relationships.
4) Esteem needs. These include needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, and confidence, and
the appreciation and recognition of characteristics by others. Organizational factors that might satisfy these include the
opportunity to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement and responsibility. Also, awards, promotions, prestigious
job titles, professional recognition, and the like might satisfy these when they are felt to be truly deserved.
5) Self-actualization needs. These needs are the most difficult to define. They involve the desire to develop one’s true
potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express one’s skills, talents, and emotions in a manner that is most
personally full-filling. Maslow suggests that self-actualizing people have clear perceptions of reality, accept themselves
and others, and are independent, creative, and appreciative of the world around them. Organizational conditions that
might provide self-actualization include absorbing jobs with the potential for creativity and growth as well as a relaxation
of structure to permit self-development and personal progression.
x Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Æ a five-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied
need has the greatest motivating potential; motivation depends on the person’s position in the needs hierarchy
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
x ERG theory Æ a three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up
and down the hierarchy; stems from Alderfer’s compression of Maslow’s five-category need system
1) Existence needs. These are needs that are satisfied by some material substance or condition. As such, they correspond
closely to Maslow’s physiological needs and to those safety needs that are satisfied by material conditions rather than
interpersonal relations. These include the need for food, shelter, pay, and safe working conditions.
2) Relatedness needs. These are needs that are satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts and feelings
with other organizational members. They correspond fairly closely to Maslow’s belongingness needs and to those esteem
needs that involve feedback from others. However, Alderfer stresses that relatedness needs are satisfied by open,
accurate, honest interaction rather than by uncritical pleasantness.
3) Growth needs. These are needs that are fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting. They involve the full
utilization of one’s skills and abilities and the creative development of new skills and abilities. Growth needs correspond
to Maslow’s need for self-actualization and the aspects of his esteem needs that concern achievement and responsibility.
x its two major motivation premises are as follows:
1) The more lower-level needs are gratified, the more higher-level need satisfaction is desired.
2) The less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level need satisfaction is desired.
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
x McClelland’s theory of needs Æ a non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain
needs result in particular patterns of motivation; they are the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power
x need of achievement (n Ach) Æ a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well
x exhibit the following characteristics: (1) a preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes;
(2) a tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks; and (3) a desire for performance feedback
x people who are high in n Ach are concerned with bettering their own performance or that of others, as well as being concerned
with innovation and long-term goal involvement; however, these things are not done to please others or to damage the interests
of others, rather, they are done because they are intrinsically satisfying
x need for affiliation (n Aff) Æ a strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships
x they have an ability to learn social networking quickly and a tendency to communicate frequently with others; also, they prefer to
avoid conflict and competition with others, and they sometimes exhibit strong conformity to the wishes of their friends
x need for power (n Pow) Æ a strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression
x people who are high in n Pow seek out social settings in which they can be influential
x McClelland predicts that people will be motivated to seek out and perform well in jobs that match their needs—(1) people with
high n Ach should be strongly motivated by sales jobs or entrepreneurial positions because such jobs offer the feedback, personal
responsibility, and opportunity to set goals; (2) people who are high in n Aff will be motivated by jobs such as social work or
customer relations because these jobs have as a primary task establishing good relations with others; and (3) high n Pow will
result in high motivation in jobs that enable one to have a strong impact on others, such as journalism and management
x in fact, McClelland has found that the most effective managers have a low need for affiliation, a high need for power, and the
ability to direct power toward organizational goals
Managerial Implications of Need Theories
x the need theories have some important things to say about managerial attempts to motivate employees
x the lack of support for the fairly rigid need hierarchy suggests that managers must be adept at evaluating the needs of individual
employees and offering incentives or goals that correspond to their needs
x the need theories also serve the valuable function of alerting managers to the existence of higher-order needs
x the recognition of these needs in many employees is important for 2 key reasons
1) expression of some creative and innovative behaviour on part of members seems most likely to occur during pursuit of
higher-order need fulfillment, and ignorance of this factor can cause de-motivation of people who have most to offer
2) research and observation evidence support Alderfer’s ideas that the frustration of higher-order needs prompts demands
for greater satisfaction of lower-order needs, which can lead to a vicious motivational cycle—that is, because the factors
that gratify lower-level needs are fairly easy to administer, management has grown to rely on them to motivate employees
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