Chapter 9 Notes

36 views4 pages
user avatar
Published on 1 Jun 2011
Management (MGH)
Chapter 9 Leadership Notes
What is Leadership?
x leadership Æ the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context
x effective leadership exerts influence by enhancing the productivity, innovation, satisfaction, and commitment of the workforce
x strategic leadership Æ leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and
work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization
x strategic leaders can provide an organization with a sustainable competitive advantage by helping their organizations compete in
turbulent and unpredictable environments and by exploiting growth opportunities
x strategic leaders are open and honest in their interactions with the organization’s stakeholders, and they focus on the future
Are Leaders Born? The Search for Leadership Traits
Research on Leadership Traits
x traits Æ individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and personality
x research has shown that many, many traits are not associated with whether people become leaders or how effective they are
x research has also shown that some traits are associated with leadership: intelligence, energy, self-confidence, dominance,
motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty and integrity, and need for achievement
Limitations of the Trait Approach
x in many cases, it is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether opportunity for leadership produces the traits
x there is little information about how to train and develop leaders and no way to diagnose failures of leadership
x the most crucial problem is the approach’s failure to take into account the situation in which leadership occur
The Behaviour of Leaders
x the trait approach is mainly concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting
x the limitations of this approach gradually promoted an interest in what leaders do in group settings
x statistical analyses revealed that there are two basic kinds of behaviour—consideration and initiating structure
Consideration and Initiating Structure
x consideration Æ the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees
x the considerate leader is seen as friendly and egalitarian, expresses appreciation and support, and is protective of group welfare
x initiating structure Æthe degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment
x the structuring leader clearly defines and organizes his or her role and the roles of followers, stresses standard procedures,
schedules the work to be done, and assigns employees to particular tasks
x consideration and initiating structure are not incompatible; a leader could be high, low, or average on one or both dimensions
The Consequences of Consideration and Structure
x consideration and initiating structure contribute positively to employees’ motivation, job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness
x consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader satisfaction and job satisfaction), motivation, and
leader effectiveness, while initiating structure is slightly more strongly related to job performance and group performance
x the relative importance of consideration and initiating structure varies according to the nature of the leadership situation
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours
x two additional leader behaviours that have been focus of research are leader reward behaviour and leader punishment behaviour
x leader reward behaviour Æ the leader’s use of compliments, tangible benefits, and deserved special treatment
x leader punishment behaviour Æ leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and active withholding of rewards
x contingent leader reward behaviour was found to be positively related to employees’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviour
x while contingent leader punishment behaviour was related to more favourable employee perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours,
non-contingent punishment behaviour was related to unfavourable outcomes
Situational Theories of Leadership
x the basic premise of situational theories of leadership is that the effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the setting
x setting includes characteristics of employees, nature of task they are performing, and characteristics of organization
Fledler’s Contingency Theory and Cognitive Resource Theory
x Contingency Theory Æ Fred Fiedler’s theory that states that the association between leadership and orientation and group
effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence
x some situations are more favourable for leadership than others, and these require different orientations on the part of leaders
x Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Æ a current or past co-worker with whom leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task
x the leader who describes the LPC relatively favourably (a high LPC score) can be considered relationship oriented—that is,
despite the fact that the LPC is or was difficult to work with, the leader can still find positive qualities in him or her
x the leader who describes the LPC unfavourably (a low LPC score) can be considered task oriented—that is, this person allows
the low-task competence of the LPC to colour his or her views of the personal qualities of the LPC
x high LPC leaders are motivated to maintain interpersonal relations, while low LPC leaders are motivated to accomplish the task
x situational favourableness specifies when a particular LPC orientation should contribute most to group effectiveness
x factors that influence this, in order of importance, are the following: leader-member relations; task structure; and position power
x Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT) Æ a leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leader’s cognitive resources
(intelligence, expertise, and experience) contribute to effective leadership
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 4 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in