Chapter 2 lecture notes

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1 Jun 2011

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x behaviours may change and will change over time, but deep-seated personality will not change over time
x personality Æ relatively stable pattern of behaviours; consistent internal states
x personalities are both external (the ones that can be observed) and internal (the ones that cannot be seen)
x what is seen of a person is just one half, the external personality
Ways of Explaining Employees’ Behaviour in Organization
1) Dispositional Approach
humans are predisposed to behave in certain ways
behaviour is based on genetics and genes inherited
2) Situational Approach
organizational factors affect behaviour more than disposition
an example includes wages and benefits, which will affect job satisfaction
3) Interactionist Approach
most widely accepted as an explanation
organizational behaviour is based on two things: (1) individual personality, and (2) work setting
this basically means that two things affect peoples behaviour in the organization: individual and environment
5 Factor Model of Personality
x a cluster of traits (5) which help to explain behaviour
1. Conscientiousness—hardworking, organized, dependable, persevering vs. lazy, disorganized, unreliable, quitter
2. Extraversion—outgoing, assertive, sociable vs. reserved, quiet, shy
o extroverts go into areas in organizations such as marketing, HR, and sales
o introverts go into areas such as teaching, accounting, finance, research
3. Agreeableness—cooperative, warm vs. cold, belligerent
4. Emotional Stability—calm, high self-esteem, secure, happy vs. depressed, insecure
5. Openness to Experience—creative, curious, culture vs. narrow, against change
o a simple test to find out if people are open to change is to see if they like change in their grocery shopping
Way to Classify People’s Personality
x type A Æ time urgency, competitive, irritable, task-oriented better in sales positions
x type B Æ casual, laid-back, reflective, social, better in top management positions
x usually people fall into one or the other camp, but some people may fall into both categories somewhat
x there are no other types of personality in this theory
1) Self-monitoring
your concern for what others think of you and how you present yourself to others
sensitive to “cues” from others Æ facial expressions, body language
some people are not sensitive to “cues” and this means that in the organization, these people will be ignored
people that are high self-monitors are good in jobs that deal with the public, such as teaching, sales, HR
people that are low in self-monitoring are good in jobs where they don’t need to deal with the public, such as
computer technicians, accounting, IT
2) Self-efficacy
belief in one’s ability to perform Æ confidence
self-efficacy is not always a good sign of success, but it is a good starter
3) Self-esteem
the positive or the negative views people have of themselves
the higher your self-esteem, the better is your life and your position in the workplace
people with high self-esteem speak out a lot, are confident in what they do, courageous, more satisfied with jobs
Locus of Control
x the belief about how much control we have over our lives
x external locus of control Æ are always blaming someone else for why they haven’t succeeded
x internal locus of control Æ believe their own efforts and ability will get them places in lives
x people who have an internal locus of control will succeed in life
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