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Chapter

ch.11 for MGTB23

by OC4

Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHB02H3
Professor
Samantha Montes

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WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
Leadership is the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of
others in an organizational context
o Effective leadership enhances productivity, innovation, satisfaction, and
commitment to the workforce
In theory, any organizational member can exert influence on others members
o However, managers, executives, supervisors, and department heads are in better
positions to exert leadership
ARE LEADERS BORN? THE SEARCH FOR LEADERSHIP TRAITS
Assumption is that those who become leaders and do a good job of it possess a special set
of traits that distinguish them from the masses of followers
Research on Leadership Traits
Traits are individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and
personality
Many traits are not associated with whether people become leaders or how effective they
are, in fact they show how they are associated with leadership
Agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience are related to leadership
behaviours
Low relationship on intelligence and leadership
Most effective leaders have high levels of emotional intelligence
o Positively related to job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour
Limitations of the Trait Approach
Even if dominance, intelligence, or tallness is associated with effective leadership, we
have few clues about what dominant or intelligent or tall people do to influence others
successfully
Most crucial problem of the trait approach to leadership is the failure to take into account
the situation in which leadership occurs
Traits are not sufficient for successful leadership
Possessing the appropriate traits for leadership makes it possible that certain actions will
be taken and will be successful
LESSONS FROM EMERGENT LEADERSHIP
Task leader is a leader who is concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others,
planning strategy, and dividing labour
Social-emotional leader is a leader who is concerned with reducing tension, patching up
disagreements, settling arguments, and maintaining morale
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Task and social-emotional leadership are two important functions that must occur in
groups
Leaders must be concerned with both the social-emotional and task functions
o Organizations should never appoint two formal leaders to a work group
o The formal appointed leader must often be concerned with juggling the demands
of the two distinct roles
THE BEHAVIOUR OF ASSIGNED LEADERS
Is there a particular leadership style that is more effective than other possible styles?
Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration is the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal
concern and respect for employees
o Friendly, egalitarian, expresses appreciation and support, protective of group
welfare
o Related to social-emotional leader
Initiating structure is the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal
attainment
o Clearly defines and organizes their role and the role of followers, stresses
standard procedures, schedules the work to be done, and assigns employees to
particular tasks
o Related to task leader
The Consequences of Consideration and Structure
Consideration and initiating structure contributes positively to employee`s motivation,
job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness
o Consideration more strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation, and
leadership effectiveness
o Initiating structure more strongly related to job and group performance
The effects of consideration and initiating structure often depend of characteristics of the
task, the employee, and the setting in which work is performed
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours
Leader reward behaviour is the leader`s use of complements, tangible benefits, and
deserved special treatment
o Employees have a clear picture of what is expected, and experience high levels of
job satisfaction
Leader punishment behaviour is the leader`s use of reprimands or unfavourable task
assignments and the active withholding of rewards
o Extremely difficult to use effectively, employees might react negatively with
great dissatisfaction
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Contingent leader reward behaviour is positively related to employee`s perceptions,
attitudes, and behaviour
Contingent leader punishment behaviour is positively related to employee`s perceptions,
attitudes and behaviour
o Noncontingent punishment behaviour was negatively related
SITUATIONAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
Situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts to occur
o Setting includes characteristics of employees, the nature of the task, and
characteristics of the organization
Fiedler`s Contingency Theory
Contingency Theory is Fred Fiedler`s theory that states that the association between
leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the
situation is for exerting influence
Leadership Orientation
Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) is a current or past co-worker with whom a leader
has had a difficult time accomplishing a task
o High LPC means that it was difficult to work with them , but the leader still found
positive qualities in them
o Low LPC means the leader allowed the low-task competence of the LPC to colour
their views of the personal qualities of the LPC
High LPC leaders are motivated to maintain interpersonal relationships
Low LPC leaders are motivated to accomplish the task
Situational Favourableness
Specifies when a particular LPC orientation should contribute most to group
effectiveness
Factors that affect situational favourableness, in order of importance
o Leader-member relations
! When the relationship between the leader and the group members is good,
the leader is in a favourable situation to exert influence. A poor
relationship should damage the leader`s influence and even lead to
insubordination or sabotage
o Task structure
! When the task at hand is highly structured, the leader should be able to
exert considerable influence on the group
o Position power
! Position power is the formal authority granted to the leader by the
organization to tell others what to do
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