MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4.1-4.2: Cultural Intelligence, Baby Boomers

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Chapter Four: Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour
4.1 Define values and discuss the implications of cross-cultural variation in values for organizational
behaviour
Values: collection of preferences towards certain states over others; good or bad?
Are otiatioal eause they deterie hat e at or do’t at i our ork eiroet
Ho e should/should’t ehae
Will not determine how people will act in specific situations (very hypothetical)
Value between the worker and organization determines fit (do they have the same values)
Differences is values by generation
Traditionalist: 8%, hardworking, mature, detail oriented, reliable; prefers far, clear, direct and
respectful leadership
Baby boomers: 44%, team perspective, experienced, knowledgeable, service oriented; prefers
equal treatment, nurturing, mission defined and democratic leaders
Generation X: 34% independent, adaptable, creative, techno-literate, challenge convention;
prefers direct, competent, informal, flexible, results driven, supportive of learning leaders
Millennials: 14%, optimistic, multitask, tenacious, tech savvy, socially responsible, likes learning;
prefers motivational, collaborative, positive, educational, achievement oriented, able to coach
Cultural differences in values
Work centrality: the value of work itself -- Japan has the highest work centrality, Belgians and
American are average, and British scored low
o Money is not the only reason they work
o High work centrality: work more hours (issues when British person is stationed in Japan)
Hofstede’s Study: 4/5 work-related value dimension (power distance, uncertainty avoidance,
masculinity/femininity and individualism/collectivism plus long-term/short-term orientation)
o Power distance: acceptability of unequal power distribution (how accessible are
superiors; Demark/Austria/New Zealand low distance, Canada/US average,
Russia/Philippines/Mexico are high)
o Uncertainty avoidance: comfort with ambiguous situations, adverse to risk (high
avoidance means stricter rules, conformity and security, value hard work;
Japan/Greece/Portugal is high avoidance, Singapore/Denmark/Sweden are low, US and
Canada are below average)
o Masculinity/femininity: masculine cultures have more clear gender roles of men and
women and stress economic performance, while feminine cultures stress sexual equality
and quality of life (Japan and Slovakia are masculine, Scandinavian countries are
feminine, Canada is average, US is moderate masculine)
o Individualism/collectivism: individualistic stress independence, initiative and privacy
while collective stress interdependence and loyalty (US, Australia, Great Britain and
Canada are individualistic while Venezuela, Columbia and Pakistan are collective, Japan
is average)
o Long-term/short-term orientation: persistence, thrift, attention to status vs. personal
steadiness, face-saving, and social niceties (China, Japan, South Korea are LT while US,
Canada, Zimbabwe and Nigeria are ST)
o Power distance and individualism are related (High power distance means collectivism)
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Document Summary

4. 1 define values and discuss the implications of cross-cultural variation in values for organizational behaviour. Cultural differences in values: work centrality: the value of work itself -- japan has the highest work centrality, belgians and. Russia/philippines/mexico are high: uncertainty avoidance: comfort with ambiguous situations, adverse to risk (high avoidance means stricter rules, conformity and security, value hard work; Japan/greece/portugal is high avoidance, singapore/denmark/sweden are low, us and. Individualism/collectivism: individualistic stress independence, initiative and privacy while collective stress interdependence and loyalty (us, australia, great britain and. Canada are individualistic while venezuela, columbia and pakistan are collective, japan is average: long-term/short-term orientation: persistence, thrift, attention to status vs. personal steadiness, face-saving, and social niceties (china, japan, south korea are lt while us, Canada, zimbabwe and nigeria are st: power distance and individualism are related (high power distance means collectivism, cultural distance: how different cultures differ in values. 4. 2 define attitudes, and explain how people develop attitudes.

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