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Chapter 5

MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Motivation, Job Performance, Embezzlement

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Phani Radhakrishnan

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Chapter 5: Theories of work motivation
Why study motivation?
increase in need for increased productivity to be globally competitive
rapid change that contemporary organizations are undergoing
stable systems of rules, regulations, and procedures that once guided behaviour are being replaced by
requirements for flexibility and attention to customers that necessitate higher levels of initiative
What is Motivation?
motivation - the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
Basic characteristics of motivation
Effort - the strength of the person’s work related behaviour, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the
Persistence - the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks
Direction - channeling persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization
Goals - all motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed
goals might include: high productivity, good attendance, or creative decisions
motivated by goals that are contrary to the objectives of the organization, including absenteeism,
sabotage, and embezzlement
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and self-determination theory
motivated by factors in the external environment such as supervision or pay
self-motivated without the application of external factors
Intrinsic motivation - motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task;
it is usually self-applied
ofeelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence derived from performing
one’s job are examples of intrinsic motivators, along with sheer interest in the job itself
Extrinsic motivation - motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually
applied by others
opay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision
the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself
when extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the motivating potential of intrinsic rewards
self-determination theory (SDT) -- a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is
autonomous or controlled
autonomous motivation - when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
oengaged in a task because they choose to be and their actions are internally regulated
oshown to facilitate effective performance, especially on complex tasks
opositive work attitudes and psychological well-being
controlled motivation - when people are motivated by intrinsic factors
owhen motivation is controlled, individuals feel they have no choice and they to engage in a task
oexternally regulated
opeople do something to obtain a desired consequence, avoid punishment or because the boss is
watching them
Motivation and performance
performance - the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of
the organization
performance influenced by: the Big Five, core self-evaluation, and mental ability

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General cognitive ability
cognitive ability - intelligence or mental ability
general cognitive ability - a person’s basic information-processing capacities and cognitive resources
reflects an individual's overall capacity and efficiency for processing information, and it includes a
number of cognitive abilities, such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities
predicts learning, training, and career success
Emotional intelligence (EI) - Peter Salovey & John Mayer
the ability to understand and manage one’s own and others feelings and emotions
ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, and understand and reason about
emotions, and manage and regulate their emotions in oneself and others
regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action
EI Model that consists of four interrelated sets of skills/branches
strongly related to job performance in jobs that require high levels of emotional labour, such as police
officers and customer service representatives
Academic performance - college student’s EI measured at the start of the academic year predicted their
grade point averages at the end of the year

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