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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Organizational Behaviour and Management


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHB02H3
Professor
Joanna Heathcote
Chapter
1

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Week 1
Chapter 1 – Organizational Behaviour and Management
What are Organizations?
- Organizations – social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort
-social inventions – coordinated presence of people
-goals – survival
- Behaviours for survival & adaptation–ppl have to be motivated to join and remain in org.
oCarry out bascule work reliably – productivity, quality and services
oWilling to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills
oBe flexible and innovative
-Group effort – depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals
- OB involves understanding people and managing them to work effectively, how org. can
survive and adapt to change and how to get people to practise effective teamwork
What is OB?
-Organizational behaviour – the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in
organizations
- OB systematically studies these attitudes and behaviours and provide insight about
effectively managing and changing them, structure of organizations, how events of
external environment affects org.
- Competitive advantage and organizational effectiveness is related to management and OB
- Goals of OB - Predicting, explaining, managing (management – art of getting things
accomplished in organizations through others)
Early Prescriptions concerning Management
-Classical viewpoint – advocated a very high degree of specialization of labour, intensive
coordination and centralized decision making
- To maintain control, classical view suggested managers have fairly few workers, except
for lower-level jobs where machine pacing might substitute for close supervision
-Scientific management – Frederick Taylor’s system for using research to determine the
optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks
- He supported development of written instructions that clearly defined work procedures
and he encouraged supervisors to standardize workers’ movements and breaks for
maximum efficiency
-Bureaucracy – Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of
command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power and selection and
promotion based on technical competence
- Weber – bureaucracy will provide workers with security and a sense of purpose
- Evidence-based management – translation principles based on best scientific evidence
into organizational practices
-Hawthorne studies – research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric in
the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect
productivity and work adjustment
-Human relations movement – critique of classical management and bureaucracy that
advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee
needs
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Week 1
-Contingency approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to
manage and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the
situation
Managerial Roles
-Interpersonal roles – expected behaviours that have to do with establishing and
maintaining interpersonal relations
- Figurehead role – manager as a symbol of organizational rather than an active decision
maker ex. Making speech to trade group, entertaining clients, signing legal documents
- Leadership role – manager selects, mentors, rewards and disciplines employees
- Liaison role – manager maintains horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization
-Informational roles – various ways the manager receives and transmits info
- Monitor role – manager scans the internal and external environments of the firm to follow
current performance and to keep himself informed of new ideas and trends
- Disseminator role – send info on both facts and preferences to others
- Spokesperson role – sending messages into the organization’s external environment
-Decisional roles – entrepreneur role – turns problems and opportunities into plans for
improved changes
- Disturbance handler role – deals with problems stemming from employee conflicts and
addresses threats to resources and turf
- Resource allocation roles – decide how to deploy time, money, personnel and other
resources
- Negotiator roles – conduct major negotiations with other organizations and individuals
Managerial Activities (4 basic types of activities)
-Routine communications – formal sending and recie3ving of information and handling
paperwork
-Traditional management – planning, decision making and controlling are the primary
types of traditional management
-Networking – interacting with people outside the organization and informal socializing
and politicking with insiders
-Human resource management – includes motivating and reinforcing, disciplining and
punishing, managing conflict, staffing and training and developing employees
Managerial agendas
-Agenda setting – informal and unwritten, more concerned with people issues and less
numerical, based on wide-ranging informal discussions with wide variety of people
-Networking – provide info and established cooperative relationships relevant to their
agendas
-Agenda implementation – use networks to implement agendas, employed wide range of
influence tactics from direct orders to subtle language and stores that conveyed message
Managerial Minds
- Use intuition in several ways – sense that a problem exists, perform well-learned mental
tasks rapidly, synthesize isolated pieces of info and data and to double-check more formal
or mechanical analyses
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