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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Values, Attitudes, & Work Behaviour

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Joanna Heathcote

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Week 3
Chapter 4 – Values, Attitudes and Work Behaviour
What are Values?
-Values – a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others
- Broad tendency – values are general, do not predict behaviour in specific situations
Hofstede’s Study
- Critical cross-cultural dimensions of values:
-Power distance – the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by
society members
-Uncertainty avoidance – the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain
and ambiguous situations
- Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, hard work,
conformity and security
- Cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity
and security
-Masculinity/femininity – more masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles,
support the dominance of men and stress economic performance
- More feminine cultures accept flied gender roles, stress sexual equality and quality of
-Individualism/collectivism – individualistic societies stress independence, individual
initiative and privacy, collective cultures favour independence &loyalty to family or clan
-Long-term/short-term (Time) orientation – cultures with long-term orientation tend to
stress persistence, perseverance, thrift and close attention to status differences
- Cultures with short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-
saving and social niceties
- Differences in values across cultures set constrains on the export and import of OB
theories and practices and have implications for satisfying global customers and developing
globally aware workers
What are Attitudes?
-Attitude – a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some
specific object, situation, person or category of people
- A function of what we think about the world(beliefs) and how we feel about the
world (values)
- More specific than values, ex. Value working highly but dislike specific job
- Attitude influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person or group
- Ex. Dislike German food don’t eat German food
- Attitudes not always consistent with behaviour and it provides useful info over and
above the actions that we can observe
- Belief + Value => Attitude Behaviour
- Persuasion designed to modify or emphasize values is usually emotionally oriented
- Persuasion that is slanted toward modifying certain beliefs is usually rationally
What Is Job Satisfaction?
-Job satisfaction – a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs
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-Facet satisfaction – the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with
various facets of the job – ex. work itself, compensation, career opportunities, recognition,
benefits, working conditions, supervision, co-workers and organizational policy
-Overall satisfaction – an overall (average) or summary indicator of a person’s attitude
toward his or her job that cuts across the various facets
-Job Descriptive Index (JDI) – measure of job satisfaction, yes/no/? cannot decide
questionnaire designed around the five facets of satisfaction (compensation, tasks,
supervision, peers, environment) in describing whether a particular word or phrase is
descriptive of particular facets of their jobs
-Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) – respondents indicate how happy they
are with various aspects of their job on a scale ranging from very satisfied to very dissatisfied
- This provides an index of overall satisfaction as well as satisfaction on the facets on
which the MSQ is based
What determines job satisfaction?
- Satisfaction is a function of the discrepancy between what individuals want from their
jobs and what they perceive that they obtain taking into account fairness
- Dispositional factors, moods and emotions influence job satisfaction
- Attitudes ( job satisfaction) are the produce of beliefs and values
- People might differ in their beliefs about the job in question
- They differ in their perceptions concerning the actual nature of the job
-Discrepancy theory – a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy
between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained
Fairness (3)
-Distributive fairness (justice) – fairness that occurs when people receive what they
think they deserve from their jobs
-Equity theory – a theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs
one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and
outcomes of another person or group
-My outcomes/my inputs = other’s outcomes/other’s inputs
-Input – anything that people give up, offer or trade to their organization in exchange
for outcomes
-Outcomes – factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for
their inputs
- Equitable distribution of work outcomes contributes to job satisfaction by providing
for feelings of distributive fairness
- In collective cultures, equality of outcomes might produce more feelings of
distributive fairness, feminine cultures, allocating outcomes according to need = distributive
-Procedural fairness (justice) – fairness that occurs when the process (allocation)
used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable
- Factors that contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness – allocator follows
consistent producers over time and across people, uses accurate info and unbiased, allows
two-way communication during allocation process and welcomes appeals of the procedure
-Interactional fairness (justice) – fairness that occurs when people feel they have
received respectful and informative communication about an outcome
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