42 views6 pages
13 Feb 2011
School
Course
Chapter 7 Groups and Teamwork
1. What is a Group?
๎€Group: Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal.
----The interaction need not be face to face, and it need not be verbal.
----Interdependence: group members rely to each other to accomplish goals.
----All groups have one or more goals.
Group memberships: group exerts influence on us (social mechanism); we are able to exert
influence on others.
๎€Formal work groups: Groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the
achievement of organizational goals.
----Most common formal group: a manager and the employees who report to the manager.
(Hierarchy)
----Task forces: temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals
----Committees: permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work
group structure.
๎€Informal groups: Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of
organizational members.
2. Group Development:
๎€Typical stages of group development:
----Forming: The situation is ambiguous, members are aware of their dependency on each other.
----Storming: Problems happen earlier, then sorting out roles and responsibilities.
----Norming: Develop social consensus, compromising. Interdependence and norms are
recognized.
----Performing: The group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment.
----Adjourning: Members exhibit emotional support for each other.
๎€Punctuated equilibrium model: A model of group development that describes how groups
with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions.
๎€‚Phase1: begins with the first meeting and continue until the midpoint in the groupโ€™s existence.
----The first meeting is critical in setting the agenda. Assumptions, approaches, and precedents
that members develop in the first meeting end up dominating the first half of the groupโ€™s life.
๎€‚Midpoint Transition: it occurs exactly the halfway point in time toward the groupโ€™s deadline.
The transition marks a change in the groupโ€™s approach, and how the group manages it is
critical for the group to show progress. The group may seek outside advice.
๎€‚Phase2: decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2. It
concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders
will evaluate the product.
๎€Advices:
----Prepare carefully for the first meeting. Stress motivation and excitement.
----As long as people are working, do not look for radical progress during Phase 1.
----Manage the midpoint transition carefully. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the ideas
that people generated in Phase 1. Recognize a strategy to be used in Phase 2.
----Ensure adequate resources are available to execute the Phase 2 plan.
----Resist deadline changes. These could damage the midpoint transition.
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
3. Group Structure and Its Consequences
Group structure: the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group (the way a group is
put together)
๎€Group Size:
Size and satisfaction: larger groups report less satisfaction with group membership.
Size and performance: depend on the exact task that the group needs to accomplish and on how we
define good performance.
๎€‚Additive tasks: group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual
group members. Hence, the potential performance of the group increases with group size.
๎€‚Disjunctive tasks: group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group
member. The potential performance of the group increases with group size.
----Potential performance and process losses increase with group size
----Actual performance increases with size up to a point and then falls off
----The average performance of group members decreases as size gets bigger.
Process losses: performance difficulties that stem from the problems of motivating and
coordinating larger groups. Thus, actual performance = potential performance โ€“ process losses.
Conjunctive tasks: the performance of the group is limited by its poorest performer. Both the
potential and actual performance would decrease as group size increases. (The probability of
including a weak link in the group goes up)
๎€Diversity of Group Membership:
Group diversity has a strong impact on interaction patterns โ€“ more diverse groups have a more
difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive.
----longer time in forming, storming and norming
----once they do develop, more and less diverse groups are equally cohesive and productive
๎€Group norms:
Norms: Collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behavior of each
other.
----Norm development: the consistency of behavior provides important psychological security and
permits us to carry out our daily business with minimal disruption.
----Shared elated beliefs and values form the basis for norms. (Norms and collectively held
expectations)
----Some typical norms: dress norms, reward allocation norms (equity, equality, reciprocity, social
responsibility), performance norms.
๎€Roles: Positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviors attached to them.
----Role represent โ€œpackagesโ€ of norms apply to all group members, they engage in similar
behaviors. (Designated, assigned roles, emergent roles)
๎€‚Role ambiguity: Lack of clarity of job goals or methods.
Elements that lead to ambiguity:
----Organizational factors: some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their function in the
organization.
----The role sender: Role sender might have unclear expectations of a focal person.
----The focal person: might not be fully digested by the focal person.
The consequence of role ambiguity: job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

group: two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal. ---the interaction need not be face to face, and it need not be verbal. ---interdependence: group members rely to each other to accomplish goals. Group memberships: group exerts influence on us (social mechanism); we are able to exert influence on others. formal work groups: groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. ---most common formal group: a manager and the employees who report to the manager. (hierarchy) ---task forces: temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals. ---committees: permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work group structure. informal groups: groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members: group development: ---forming: the situation is ambiguous, members are aware of their dependency on each other. ---storming: problems happen earlier, then sorting out roles and responsibilities. ---performing: the group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment.

Get access

Grade+20% OFF
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Class+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers