Perceptual differences result in a lack of openness in communication, which might contribute
too much role conflict and ambiguity on the part of employees. It can also reduce employee
Barriers to effective manager-employee communication (What causes communication
Conflicting role demands: The manager tries to take care of both social emotional business
and task business. However, it may cause role demands conflict. Therefore, two separate
communiqués, one emotional one directive will be more effective.
The mum effect: the tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others. The
sender may or may not be responsible for the bad news; employees who desire to impress their
bosses to achieve a promotion. It may also apply to managers.
Research: employees who had good performance ratings were more likely to be informed of those
rating than employees who had bad ratings.
4. The grapevine:
Characteristics of the grapevine:
Grapevine: An organization’s informal communication network.
Grapevine communicates information by word of mouth. Written notes, e-mails, and fax
messages can contribute to the transmission of information.
Organizations often have several grapevine systems, some of which may be loosely
The grapevine can transmit information relevant to the performance of the organization as
well as personal gossip.
Research: 75% of the noncontroversial organizationally related information carried by the
grapevine is correct. Personal information and emotionally charged information are most likely to
Who participates in the grapevine:
Personality characteristics may play a role. (Extraverts might be more likely to pass on
information than introverts; those who lack self-esteem might pass on information that fives
them a personal advantage)
The nature of the information.
Physical location of organization members is related to their opportunity to both receive an
transmit news via the “vine”
Pros and Cons of the grapevine:
It can keep employees informed about important organizational matters.
Grapevine can also provide a test of employee reactions to proposed changes without making
Participation in the grapevine can add a little interest and diversion to the work setting.
Rumor: an unverified belief that is in general circulation.
----Rumor spread fast when the information is ambiguous and the content of the rumor is
important to those involved, when the rumor seems credible and when the recipient is anxious.
5. The verbal language of work
Jargon: Specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations or