MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes -Extraversion And Introversion, Conscientiousness, Externals
Personality and Learning
What is Personality?
Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an indi-
vidual interacts with his or her environment and how she or he feels, thinks and behaves
•Personality is determined by genetic predisposition and by long-term learning history
To predict and understand organizational behaviour, one must know something about an individual’s
personality and the setting in which he or she works
The Five-Factor Model of Personality (Five-Factor Model)
The dimensions are:
•Extraversion - the extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy. Persons who score high on
extraversion tend to be sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful and assertive.
•Emotional stability/Neuroticism - the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional con-
trol. People with high emotional stability (low neuroticism) are self-confident
•Agreeable - the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. Agreeable people are
warm, considerate, altruistic, friendly, sympathetic, co-operative and eager to help others.
•Conscientiousness - the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented.
These people are dependable and positively motivated, orderly, self-disciplined, hard-working
•Openness to experience - the extent to which a person thinks flexible and is receptive to new
ideas. These people tend to be ore creative and innovative.
Personality Characteristics that Influence Organizational Behaviour
Locus of Control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or
external forces. High internals, believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides
within themselves, versus, high externals believe that external forces determine their behaviour
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Self-monitoring: The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in so-
cial settings and relationships.
•High self-monitors perform well in flexible and adaptive roles, they have good self-presentation
skills, however, they have difficulty resisting social pressure
Self-esteem: The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
•Behavioural Plasticity Theory: People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to ex-
ternal and social influences than those who have high self-esteem
Recent Developments in Personality
•Positive Affectivity: Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people in a posi-
•Negative affectivity: Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people in a nega-
•Proactive Behaviour: Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones
•Proactive Personality: A stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal ini-
tiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environ-
General self-efficacy: A general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in her or her ability to per-
form successfully in a variety of challenging situations
Core self-evaluations: A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the
evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth
•Consists of four traits: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control and neuroticism
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