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1 Apr 2011
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Chapter 2
Personality – orthogonal to cognitive ability
-stable psychological characteristics influence the way interact, feel, behave
-use for selection promotion and development
-has the strongest effect(a strong predictor of behaviour) in weak situations
(weak reinforcement)
Dispositional approach – possess stable traits influence their attitudes
-behave in certain ways
Situational approach – rewards/punishment influence people’s behaviour
-characteristics of work predict job satisfaction
Interactionish approach – appreciate the advantages of employee diversity
-person factors x environmental factors = behaviour
Five-Factor Model of Personality
-extraversion: sociable vs. withdrawn, shy
-emotional stability/neuroticism: stable, confident vs. depressed, anxious
-agreeableness: tolerant, forgiving, cooperative vs. cold/rude
-conscientiousness: dependable, responsible vs. careless, impulsive
-openness to experience: curious, original vs. dull, unimaginative
High self-monitors – take great care to observe and control the images that they project
-concern for socially, gravitate to jobs, more involve, leader, perform better,
more role stress, less commitment, more promotion, no ambiguous social settings,
no unfamiliar cultures
Competency (job) – global measure of knowledge, skills, personality and motivation required for
success
self-report – quick, efficient
-reflect social desirability bias e.g. never gossip at work
projective tests – project own thoughts and feelings onto ambiguous stimuli
- lack of reliability, validity and depence on subjective interpretation
observational techniques – always used in interview
-depend on the observe person to rate
-situational
Personality tests avoid
1) can’t predict job performance
2) expertise needed to interpret
3) legal implication (try to make prediction about performance)
4) faking good
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1) meta-analytic findings  concrete numbers, find the evidence, key relationship
2) standardizing  good standardizing word-related = increase reliability
3) no faking
Person-Environment Fit – match personality with task requirement
-bad fit = low satisfaction, high turnover
Self-Esteem - positive self-evaluation
-low-esteem – more susceptible to social influences
-react badly to negative feedback
Important behaviour
positive affectivity – positive mood, high job satisfaction
negative affectivity – negative mood, more stress
proactive personality – stable personal disposition, take initiative, effect positive
change, identify opportunity
general self-efficacy – motivational trait, adapt to uncertain, high job satisfaction
core self-evaluations – locus of control, neuroticism, like complex job
Learning – permanent change in behaviour potential
Cultural awareness – norms of organizations, company goals, expectations, priorities
Operant Learning Theory – learn to operate on environment to achieve certain consequences
-control by consequences
-connection between behaviour and consequence that is learned
Increased Probability of behaviour  Positive stimulus added  positive reinforcement
 Negative stimulus added  negative reinforcement
Decreased Probability of behaviour  Negative stimulus added  Punishment
 None-reinforcer terminated  Extinction
Positive Reinforcement - stimulus, or remain the probability of some behaviour 
-dependence on desired behaviour
-stimulus = positive reinforcer
Negative Reinforcement – avoid behaviour
- remove stimulus
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Document Summary

Personality orthogonal to cognitive ability stable psychological characteristics influence the way interact, feel, behave use for selection promotion and development has the strongest effect(a strong predictor of behaviour) in weak situations (weak reinforcement) Dispositional approach possess stable traits influence their attitudes behave in certain ways. Interactionish approach appreciate the advantages of employee diversity characteristics of work predict job satisfaction person factors x environmental factors = behaviour. Five-factor model of personality extraversion: sociable vs. withdrawn, shy emotional stability/neuroticism: stable, confident vs. depressed, anxious agreeableness: tolerant, forgiving, cooperative vs. cold/rude conscientiousness: dependable, responsible vs. careless, impulsive openness to experience: curious, original vs. dull, unimaginative. Competency (job) global measure of knowledge, skills, personality and motivation required for success. self-report quick, efficient reflect social desirability bias e. g. never gossip at work. projective tests project own thoughts and feelings onto ambiguous stimuli. Lack of reliability, validity and depence on subjective interpretation. observational techniques always used in interview.

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