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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

Management (MGH)
Course Code

of 5
Chapter 2
Personality – orthogonal to cognitive ability
-stable psychological characteristics influence the way interact, feel, behave
-use for selection promotion and development
-has the strongest effect(a strong predictor of behaviour) in weak situations
(weak reinforcement)
Dispositional approach – possess stable traits influence their attitudes
-behave in certain ways
Situational approach – rewards/punishment influence peoples behaviour
-characteristics of work predict job satisfaction
Interactionish approach – appreciate the advantages of employee diversity
-person factors x environmental factors = behaviour
Five-Factor Model of Personality
-extraversion: sociable vs. withdrawn, shy
-emotional stability/neuroticism: stable, confident vs. depressed, anxious
-agreeableness: tolerant, forgiving, cooperative vs. cold/rude
-conscientiousness: dependable, responsible vs. careless, impulsive
-openness to experience: curious, original vs. dull, unimaginative
High self-monitors – take great care to observe and control the images that they project
-concern for socially, gravitate to jobs, more involve, leader, perform better,
more role stress, less commitment, more promotion, no ambiguous social settings,
no unfamiliar cultures
Competency (job) – global measure of knowledge, skills, personality and motivation required for
self-report – quick, efficient
-reflect social desirability bias e.g. never gossip at work
projective tests – project own thoughts and feelings onto ambiguous stimuli
- lack of reliability, validity and depence on subjective interpretation
observational techniques – always used in interview
-depend on the observe person to rate
Personality tests avoid
1) cant predict job performance
2) expertise needed to interpret
3) legal implication (try to make prediction about performance)
4) faking good
OK to use
1) meta-analytic findings concrete numbers, find the evidence, key relationship
2) standardizing good standardizing word-related = increase reliability
3) no faking
Person-Environment Fit – match personality with task requirement
-bad fit = low satisfaction, high turnover
Self-Esteem - positive self-evaluation
-low-esteem – more susceptible to social influences
-react badly to negative feedback
Important behaviour
positive affectivity – positive mood, high job satisfaction
negative affectivity – negative mood, more stress
proactive personality – stable personal disposition, take initiative, effect positive
change, identify opportunity
general self-efficacy – motivational trait, adapt to uncertain, high job satisfaction
core self-evaluations – locus of control, neuroticism, like complex job
Learning – permanent change in behaviour potential
Cultural awareness – norms of organizations, company goals, expectations, priorities
Operant Learning Theory – learn to operate on environment to achieve certain consequences
-control by consequences
-connection between behaviour and consequence that is learned
Increased Probability of behaviour Positive stimulus added positive reinforcement
Negative stimulus added negative reinforcement
Decreased Probability of behaviour Negative stimulus added Punishment
None-reinforcer terminated Extinction
Positive Reinforcement - stimulus, or remain the probability of some behaviour 
-dependence on desired behaviour
-stimulus = positive reinforcer
Negative Reinforcement – avoid behaviour
- remove stimulus
Errors Involving Reinforcement – performance feedback + social recognition
-neglect important sources of reinforcement e.g. they want to contribute,
but you give them day off = punishment
- rewards not contingent on specific behaviours
-neglect differences in preferences for rewards
Performance feedback – quantitative or qualitative information change or maintain performance
most effective: - convey in positive manner
-deliver immediately after observing performance
-represented visually (graph or chart form)
-specific to the behaviour that is being targeted
Social recognition – informal acknowledgement
- attention
- praise
- approval
Fast acquisition of some response – continuous and immediate reinforcement
-must alter strategies over time
Ratio schedules – a certain number of responses must be completed before next reinforcer is available
Fixed ratio schedule: e.g. work very hard achieve stop a while work very hard
Variable ratio schedule: steady to the performance
Extinction ( ) – gradual dissipation( ) because of termination of reinforcement
- coupled with some desired substitute behaviour reinforcement
e.g. telling a joke no one laughs remove reinforcer
Punishment – aversive( ) stimulus
(weaken) - nasty stimulus after undesirable behaviour, the probability of the behaviour
Disadvantage – not demonstrate which behaviours should replace
-indicates only what is not appropriate
-temporarily suppresses( ), might reoccur
-provoke (trigger) strong emotional reaction
use effectively – provide acceptable alternative( ) for the punished response
-limit the emotions involved in punishment
-make sure the chosen punishment is truly aversive
-punish immediately or reinstate the circumstances surrounding the
problem behaviour at a more appropriate time
-do not reward before or after a punishment
-do not inadvertently ( ) punish desirable behaviour