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Chapter 2 & 3

MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2 & 3: Extraversion And Introversion, Job Satisfaction, Neuroticism

Course Code
Brian Connelly
2 & 3

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MGHB02 – Week 6: Personality, Values, and Diversity:
Chapter 2: Personality and Learning (pp. 44-53):
-Personality – the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual
interacts with his/her environment (i.e. how he/she feels, thinks, and behaves)
oSummarizes personal style of dealing with the world  people, situations, and problems
oConsists of a # of dimensions and traits determined by genetic disposition and one’s LT learning history
oSusceptible to change through adult learning experiences
Personality and OB:
- Initially important factor in many areas of OB  motivation, attitudes, performance, leadership
- Use of personality tests became widespread after WW2 w/ military personnel selection to business orgs
-Dispositional approach – individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and
oFocuses on individual dispositions and personality
oIndividuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways
oMixed and inconsistent findings to support how personality as a predictor of OB and job performance
-Situational approach – characteristics of the organizational setting influence people’s attitudes and behaviour
oCharacteristics examples: rewards and punishments
-Interactionist approach (interactionism) – individuals’ attitudes and behaviours are a function of both
dispositions and the situation
oWeak situations  not always clear how a person should behave  personality has most impact
Loosely defined roles, few rules, weak reward & punishment contingencies
oStrong situations  clear expectations for appropriate behaviour  personality has less impact
More defined roles, rules, and contingencies
oTrait activation theory – traits lead to certain behaviours only when the situation makes the need for
the trait salient
Personality characteristics influence people’s behaviour when the situation calls for a particular
personality characteristic
No best personality  must appreciate advantages of employee diversity
FIT: putting the right person in the right job, group, or org and exposing different employees to
different mgmt. styles
- Problem with early personality research: use of inadequate measures of personality characteristics
- Renewed interest in personality:
oAdvances in measurement and trends in orgs
oDevelopment of a framework of personality characteristics  FIVE-FACTOR MODEL (Big Five)
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Classifying personality characteristics into 5 general dimensions
- Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality:
oExtraversion – extent to which a person is outgoing vs. shy
High on extraversion  sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, assertive  enjoy social situations
Low on extraversion (introverts)  avoid social situations
oEmotional stability/neuroticism – degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control
High emotional stability (low neuroticism)  self-confident and have high self-esteem
Lower emotional stability (high neuroticism)  self-doubt and depression, anxious, hostile,
impulsive, insecure, more prone to stress
oAgreeableness – extent to which a person is friendly and approachable
More agreeable  warm, considerate, altruistic, friendly, sympathetic, cooperative, eager to help
Less agreeable  cold and aloof, argumentative, inflexible, uncooperative, uncaring, intolerant
oConscientiousness – degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented
More conscientious  dependable and positively motivated; orderly, self-disciplined, hard-
Less conscientious  irresponsible, lazy, impulsive
oOpenness to experience – extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas
Open  creativity and innovation
Less open  favour status quo
- FFM dimensions are relatively independent, cross-culture friendly, and have a genetic basis
- Research evidence on FFM:
oRelated to job performance and organizational citizenship behaviours
Organizational citizenship behaviours  voluntary behaviour that contributes to organizational
Extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness best predict job performance and more
citizenship behaviours
Best predict job performance depending on the occupation
oRelated to other work behaviours
Conscientiousness  retention and attendance  important antidote for CWBs
Extraversion  absenteeism  more absent than introverts
oRelated to work motivation and job satisfaction
Neuroticism and conscientiousness  strongest predictors of motivation (-/+)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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