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Chapter 5 & 6

MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5 & 6: Goal Setting, Motivation, Goal Orientation

Course Code
Brian Connelly
5 & 6

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MGHB02 – Week 5: Motivation:
Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation (pp. 152-180):
- Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in OB and has interested many for years
- Important for increased productivity to be globally competitive and results from rapid changes in orgs
- No single all-purpose motivation theory
- Good set of theories should explain how some people are self-motivated while others require external
- Good set of theories should recognize social aspect of human beings
What is Motivation?
-Motivation – the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
oEffort  strength of the person’s work-related behaviour (involves different kinds of activities)
oPersistence  individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks
oDirection  workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the org
Correction decisions increase probability that persistent effort = accepted org outcomes
oGoals  motivated behaviour where it is directed
-Intrinsic motivation – motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is
usually self-applied
oFeelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence derived from performing one’s
job or interest in the job itself
-Extrinsic motivation – motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually
applied by others
oPay, fringe benefits, company policies, various forms of supervision
- Some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities
- Availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself
oWhen extrinsic rewards depend on performance, motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases
oIndividuals feel less competent and less in control of their own behaviour
oPerformance is controlled by the environment and they perform well b/c of money
oOccurs only in very limited conditions and can be easily avoided
- Org setting where individuals see extrinsic rewards as symbols of success and signals for future rewards  they
increase their task performance
-Self-determination theory (SDT) – a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is
autonomous or controlled
-Autonomous motivation – when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors (they are in control of their
motivation, actions are internally regulated)

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oFacilitate effective performance, especially on complex tasks
oPositive work attitudes and psychological well-being
-Controlled motivation – when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward (no
choice and have to engage in task, actions are externally regulated)
-Performance – the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the org
- Motivation contributes to performance  however, relationship is not equal due to other factors (i.e. intelligence
or mental ability, AKA cognitive ability)
-General cognitive ability – a person’s basic information-processing capacities and cognitive resources
oReflects an individual’s overall capacity and efficiency for processing info
oIncludes: verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities required to perform mental tasks
oUsually measured by a # of specific aptitude tests (IQ#)
oPredicts learning, training, career success, job performance in manual and mental tasks
oBetter predictor of performance for more complex and higher-level jobs that require more cognitive
skills and more info processing
-Emotional intelligence (EI) – the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions
oAbility to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about
emotions, and manage emotions in oneself and others
oHigh EI  identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their own
emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action
oPredicts performance in a number of areas (i.e. job performance and academic performance)
+vly related to job performance and predicts above/beyond cognitive ability/personalities
Strongly related to job performance in jobs that require high levels of emotional labour
oImportance of EI for job performance depends on one’s cognitive ability
EI most important for job performance for lower levels of cognitive ability

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Less importance for job performance for high levels of cognitive ability
- EI model (ascending hierarchy):
oPerceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others  ability to perceive
emotions and to accurately identify one’s own emotions and the emotions of
oUsing emotions to facilitate thinking  ability to use and assimilate emotions and
emotional experiences to guide and facilitate one’s thinking and reasoning (use in
functional ways)
Shift one’s emotions and generate new emotions that can help one see
things in different ways and from different POVs
oUnderstanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by
emotions  being able to understand emotional info, the determinants and
consequences of emotions, and how emotions evolve and change over time
Understand how different situations and events can generations emotions
How they and others are influenced by various emotions
oManaging emotions so as to attain specific goals  ability to manage one’s own and others’ feelings
and emotions as well as emotional relationships
Highest level of EI  requires one to have and mastered the previous stages
Individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change their own emotions as well as others’ emotions
to suit the situation
Must be able to perceive emotions, integrate and assimilate emotions, and be knowledgeable of
and understand emotions
Need Theories of Work Motivation:
-Need theories – motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which
they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance
oWhat motivates workers
-Process theories  how various factors motivate people  complementary to need theories
-Needs  physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals can satisfy by acquiring certain
incentiv3es or achieving particular goals
- Needs  behaviour  incentives and goals
-Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – a 5 level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-
level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential
Physiological needs  minimum pay and working conditions
Safety needs  safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules and regulations, job security, a
comfortable work environment, pension and insurance plans, pay above the min. need for
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