MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Punctuated Equilibrium, A.D. Vision, Tums

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10 Jun 2016

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Chapter 7 Groups & Teamwork
I. Group
1. Definition: 2/more ppl interacting independently to achieve a common goal
2. Types: formal work groups (found by the org. for org. goal); informal groups (emerge naturally for common interest)
3. Typical stage model (of group development; of new groups)
1) Forming: orient themselves by testing the waters
2) Storming: confrontations as determining group development
3) Norming: resolve issues & develop consensus
4) Performing: task accomplishment
5) Adjourning: disperse; accomplishment rituals
4. Punctuated equilibrium model: how group w/ deadlines are affected by their 1st meetings & crucial midpt.
1) Phase 1: agenda setting (assumptions, approaches, precedents, dominating the 1st half) – motivation &
2) Midpoint Transition: approach changes for progress, crystalizing the group’s activity for Ph.2strategy
3) Phase 2: implementation of the adjusted approach in MT; burst of activities, concerning outsiders’ evaluations
5. Group structure
1) Size:
Specific Tasks Correlation Means
Satisfaction Negative Less friendship opp.; conflicts; less verbal
participation/member; less identification
of individual contribution to group success
Additive task (group performance is
dependent on the sum of individual
Positive w/in
a range;
Then turns
Adding members to ↑potential speed
Disjunctive task (Group performance is
dependent on the best performer)
Probability of finding a high performer ↑
in larger groups
Conjunctive task (Group performance is
dependent on the poorest performer
Negative Probability of having a weak performer ↑
in larger groups
Process losses: performance difficulties stemming from the problem of motivating & coordinating larger groups
Actual Performance = Potential Performance – Process Losses (Both PP & PL ↑ w/ group size)
Mean actual productivity/member is negatively related to group size
2) Diversity
Regular tasks Negative - ↑ time for communication & cohesion
- “Deep diversity” in attitudes towards work badly damage cohesiveness
- Age diversity is unrelated
Creation & innovation
3) Norms: collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviors of each other
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