Communication: process by which info is exchanged b/w sender and receiver. Encoding and decoding prone to more eror when msg inherently ambiguous or emotional. Effective communication: r ight ppl recive right info in timely manner. Chain of command: lines of authority and formal reporting relationships. Directives and instructions go down, ideas and suggestions pass upward. Chain of command incomplete and ineffective path of communication. => informal communication fails to consider informal b/w members, grapevine might spread unsavoury and inaccurate rumours across organization. => filtering r ight info to r ight ppl inhibited. Filtering: tendency for msg to be watered down or stopped during transmission www. notesolution. com. Upward filtering b/c employees afraid boss use info against them. Downward filtering due to time pressures, lack of attention to detail, or maintain edge against subordinates. Filtering increases with number of links in communication chain. Open door policy: opportunity for employees to communicate directly with manager w/o going through chain of command.