MGHB12H3 Chapter Notes -Programmed Learning, Job Performance, Performance Appraisal

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25 Jun 2011

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Chapter 7 Training and Development
The Scope of Training
Many new employees come with most KSAs needed to start work, while others may require more
extensive training
Training is any effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members
Training perceived to be oriented towards short-term performance, while development tends to be
more oriented broadening skills for future responsibilities
Primary reason for training: to bring their KSAs up to the level required for satisfactory
Investments in Training
Organization’s revenue and overall profitability positively correlated with training
Average expenditure in Canada on training and development was 1.75 percent of payroll and
organizations annually provided about 30 hours of training per employee
A Systems Approach to Training
Goal of training is to contribute to organization goals
Managers should assess org goals and strategies and orient training accordingly
oHowever, many fail to link objectives with goals (managerialfads” take precedence) 
wasted investment
Training programs often misdirected, poorly designed, and inadequately evaluated
To ensure maximum impact on individual and organization, a systems approach should be used,
which involves 4 phases: (1) needs assessment, (2) program design, (3) implementation, and (4)
Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment
Potential signals for training
oWorkers consistently failing to achieve productivity objectives
oExcessive number of customer complaints
Managers should approach needs assessment systematically by utilizing 3 different types of
analysis: organizational, task, and person analysis
Conduct a needs assessment before initiating a training program
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Chapter 7 Training and Development
Organizational Analysis Examination of the environment, strategies, and resources of the organization
to determine where training emphasis should be placed
Economic and public policy issues influence training needs
oi.e. Sept 11 airport security personnel
Aggressive hospitality” discourages troublemakers from coming to the facility
Some training revolves around the strategic initiatives of an organization
oMergers & Acquisitions frequently requires employees take on new roles and
responsibilities and adjust to new cultures and ways of conducting business
Other issues: technological change, globalization, reengineering, TQM, organizational
restructuring, downsizing, empowerment and teamwork
Trends in the workforce itself have an impact on training needs
oi.e. Younger workers need to be trained to replace retiring workers
Examination of resources (technological, financial, and human) that are available to meet training
Collect data to use in the analysis
oi.e. direct/indirect labour costs, quality of goods or services, absenteeism, turnover, and
number of accidents
Other factors important in organizational analysis: availability of potential replacements and he
time to train them
Task Analysis The process of determining what the content of a training program should be on the
basis on a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job
Identify activities performed in a particular job and the KSAs needed to perform them
Step 1: List all the tasks or duties included in the job
Step 2: List the steps performed by the employee to complete each task
Once job is understood, the type of performance required (i.e. speech, recall discrimination, and
manipulation), along with skills and knowledge necessary for performance can be defined
Tasks analysis shifting from an emphasis on a fixed sequence of tasks to the more flexible sets of
competencies required for superior performance
Competency assessment Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-
oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs
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Chapter 7 Training and Development
oGoes beyond describing traits an employee must have to successfully perform
oCaptures elements of how traits should be used within an organizations context and
culture (i.e. motivation levels, personality traits, interpersonal skills, etc.)
Person Analysis Determination of the specific individuals who need training
Equally important to determine which do not need training
Helps organizations avoid the mistake of sending all employees into training when some do not
need it
Helps managers determine what prospective trainees are able to do when they enter training so
the programs can be designed to emphasize the areas in which they are deficient
HP uses performance appraisal info as an input for person analysis
oReveals who is not meeting expectations, but not why
oIf performance deficiencies are due to ability problems training
oIf performance deficiencies are due to poor motivation or factors outside an employees
control training may not be the answer
Phase 2: Designing the Training Program
Design the type of learning environment necessary to enhance learning
Training design should focus on at least four related issues: (1) instructional objectives, (2) trainee
readiness and motivation, (3) principles of learning, and (4) characteristics of instructors
Instructional Objectives Desired outcomes of a training program
Describe the skills or knowledge to be acquired and/or attitudes to be changed
Performance-centred objective: unbiased evaluation of results (a type of instructional objective)
State clearly what you intend the results of that instruction to be
A clear statement of instructional objectives will provide a sound basis for choosing methods and
materials and for selecting the means for assessing whether the instruction will be successful
Trainee Readiness and Motivation
Two preconditions for learning that affect those who are to receive training
Trainee readiness refers to both maturity and experience factors in the trainee’s background
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