Textbook Notes (381,164)
CA (168,383)
UTSC (19,323)
MGH (426)
MGHD27H3 (37)
Chapter 3

Textbook Notes - Chapter 3

10 Pages
44 Views

Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Joanna Heathcote

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 10 pages of the document.
MGTB27 / 01 Week 2
- &DQDGD3RVWLVRQHRI&DQDGD¶VWRSHPSOR\HUVVLQFHLWKDVDdiverse workforce and
encourages the recruitment of 4 designated groups: women, members of visible minorities,
Aboriginal peoples, and persons with disabilities
What is Perception?
- Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provide order and
meaning to the environment
- Perception interprets/helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by
our senses of sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing
- People often base actions on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system
provides rather than on reality itself (e.g. what you think of the situation)
Components of Perception
- Perception has three components: perceiver, target being perceived, and situation
- Each of the component influences the perceivers impression or interpretation of the target
The Perceiver
- The perceiver¶VH[SHULHQFHQHHGVDQGHPRWLRQVFDQDIIHFWKLVKHUSHUFHSWLRQRIDWDUJHW
- Experience is the most important since past experiences lead the perceiver to develop
expectations, and these expectations affect current perceptions
o Caucasian men are less likely to perceive race or gender barriers to promotion
- Our motivational state can unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to
perceive what we wish to perceive
o 3HRSOHGHSULYHGRIIRRGPD\³VHPRUHHGLEOHWKLQJVLQDPELJXRXVSLFWXUHV
- Emotional state such as anger, happiness, or fear can influence our perception
o Employee is so happy because she got a promotion but fails to notice how upset her
co-worker is because he was not the one promoted
- Perceptual defence is the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver
DJDLQVWXQSOHDVDQWHPRWLRQVHJ³VHHZKDWZHZDQWWRVHHKHDUZKDWZHZDQWWRKHDU´
The Target
- Perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target and ambiguous
targets are especially inclined to interpretation and addition
- Providing more information about the target will not improve perceptual accuracy
o Assigning a minority worker to a prejudiced manager may not improve the
PDQDJHU¶VSerception of their true abilities
o Writing clearer memos may not always get the message across
The Situation
- Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context and this can affect what one
perceives
o A casual critical comment about your performance from your boss the week before
she is to decide whether or not to promote you will be perceived different if you
were not up for promotion (different situational contexts)
Social Identity Theory
- Social identity theory is a theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves
based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. As a result, our sense of
self is composed of personal identity and social identity
- Personal identity: based on our unique personal characteristics (e.g. interests, abilities)
Chapter 3: Perception, Attribution, and Diversity (pg. 71 ± 101)
www.notesolution.com
MGTB27 / 02 Week 2
- Social identity: based on our perception that we belong to various social groups (e.g. gender,
nationality, religion, occupation etc...)
- Once we categorize ourselves in a social category, we develop a sense of who and what we
are as well as our beliefs, values, and ways of thinking, acting, and feeling
- We also form perceptions of others based on their memberships in social categories
- Social identities are relational and comparative (define members of a category relative to
members of other categories)
- As the categories change, so will certain aspects of the focal social identity
o The author of this text is a professor, students attribute professor attributes. If author
OLYHVQH[WGRRUWRDVWXGHQWWKHVWXGHQW¶VSHUFHSWLRQRIDWWULbutes and characteristics
PD\EH³EDE\ERRPHWKLVZLOOEHGLIIHUHQWWKDQRWKHUVWXGHQWV
- Your perception of others is a function of how you categorize yourself (e.g. student) and
your target (e.g. professor). When the situation changes, so might the categorization and the
relation between the perceiver and the target
- Since people tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more positive and
favourable ways than those who are different, social identity theory is useful for
understanding stereotyping and discrimination topics
A Model of the Perceptual Process
- How does the perceiver go about putting together the information contained in the target and
the situation to form a picture of the target?
- Psychologist Jerome Bruner has developed a model of the perceptual process
o Perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target and situation surrounding it
o Perceiver is open to the informational cues contained in the target and situation
o Perceiver will seek familiar cues to base perceptions on the target
o Perceiver begins to search out cues that confirm the categorization of the target
o 3HUFHLYHVFXHVHDUFKEHFRPHOHVVRSHQDQGPRUHVHOHFWLYH
o Categorization is strengthened when perceiver actively ignores or distorts cues that
violate initial perceptions
- An early categorization can be changed through many good contradictory cues before one
recategorizes the target
- %UXQHVPRGHOGHPRQVWUDWHVWKUHHLPSRUWDQWFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRISHUFHSWXDOSURFHVV
o Perception is selective. Our perception is efficient by not using all available cues and
the cues that we do use are given special emphasis. Efficiency can hinder/aid our
perceptual accuracy
o Perceptual constancy refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same
way over time or across situations. We paint a constant picture and it is often hard to
change a bad first impression perception
o Perceptual consistency refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in
such a manner that they fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target. We
do not see a person that is both good and bad or dependable & untrustworthy. Often
distort cues in order to be consistent with our general image of a person
Basic Biases in Person Perception
- Impressions that we form of others are susceptible to a number of perceptual biases
Primacy and Recency Effects
- Primacy effect is the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions
o Thus a worker who can favourably impress his/her boss within the first few days on
the job is in an advantageous position due to primacy
www.notesolution.com
MGTB27 / 03 Week 2
o Form of selectivity and its lasting effects illustrate the operation of constancy
- Recency effect is the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions
o E.g landing a big contract WRGD\PD\H[FXVHDZKROH\HDU¶VEDGVDOHVSHUIRUPDQFH
Reliance on Central Traits
- People tend to organize their perceptions around central traits which are personal
characteristics of the target that are of special interest to a perceiver
- Central traits often have a very powerful influence on our perceptions of others
- Examples are: physical appearance relating to a variety of job-related outcomes, attractive
people to be perceived as good (social competence, qualifications, success)
- Research found that taller and more attractive people are also more likely to be paid more
Implicit Personality Theories
- Implicit personality theories are personal theories that people have about which
personality characteristics go together
- When such implicit theories are inaccurate, this provides a basis for misunderstanding
- E.g. expecting hardworking people to also be honest
Projection
- Projection is the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to
others
- In some cases, projection may be efficient since people with similar backgrounds or interests
often do think and feel similarly
- However, projection can also lead to perceptual difficulties
o Honest warehouse manager who perceives others as honest might find stock
disappearing. Projection here can serve as a form of perceptual defence where the
GLVKRQHVWZRUNHUPLJKWVD\µ6XUH,VWHDOIURPWKHFRPSDQ\VRGRHVHYHU\RQHHOVH¶
Stereotyping
- Stereotyping is the perceptual tendency to generalize about people in a certain social
category and ignore variations among them
- Categories may include: race, age, gender, ethnic background, social class & occupation
- There are three specific aspects to stereotyping
o Distinguish some category of people (college professors)
o Assume individuals in this category have certain traits (absent-minded)
o 3HUFHLYHHYHU\RQHLQWKLVFDWHJRU\SRVVHVVLQJWKHVHWUDLWV³DOOSURIHVVRUVDUHDEVHQW-
minded)
- Stereotypes help us develop impressions of ambiguous targets and we are usually pretty
familiar with the people in our own groups
- B\NQRZLQJDSHUVRQ¶VRFFXSDWLRQRUILHOGRIVWXG\ZHRIWHQPDNHDVVXPSWLRQVDERXW
his/her behaviour (e.g. accountants may be stereotyped as compulsive or precise)
- Stereotypes are often inaccurate and develop when we do not have good information about a
particular group
- Factors that work to reinforce inaccurate stereotypes:
o Incorrect stereotypes help us process information about others quickly and
efficiently. Easier for perceiver to rely on inaccurate information that to discover the
true nature of the target
o Inaccurate stereotypes are often reinforced by selective perception (e.g. look only
for behaviours that confirm the stereotypes)
Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
MGTB27 01 Week 2 Chapter 3: Perception, Attribution, and Diversity (pg. 71 101) - ,3,,!489L843041,3,,8945 025O40788L3.0L9K,8,diverse workforce and encourages the recruitment of 4 designated groups: women, members of visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, and persons with disabilities What is Perception? - Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provide order and meaning to the environment - Perception interpretshelps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses of sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - People often base actions on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides rather than on reality itself (e.g. what you think of the situation) Components of Perception - Perception has three components: perceiver, target being perceived, and situation - Each of the component influences the perceivers impression or interpretation of the target The Perceiver - The perceiver80[507L03.03008,30249L438.,3,110.9KL8 K07507.059L4341,9,7J09 - Experience is the most important since past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations, and these expectations affect current perceptions o Caucasian men are less likely to perceive race or gender barriers to promotion - Our motivational state can unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive o !045O0057L;0411442,80024700L-O09KL3J8L3,2-LJ:4:85L.9:708 - Emotional state such as anger, happiness, or fear can influence our perception o Employee is so happy because she got a promotion but fails to notice how upset her co-worker is because he was not the one promoted - Perceptual defence is the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver ,J,L389:35O0,8,390249L438 0 J 800ZK,9Z0Z,3994800 K0,7ZK,9Z0Z,3994K0,7 The Target - Perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target and ambiguous targets are especially inclined to interpretation and addition - Providing more information about the target will not improve perceptual accuracy o Assigning a minority worker to a prejudiced manager may not improve the 2,3,J0785erception of their true abilities o Writing clearer memos may not always get the message across The Situation - Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context and this can affect what one perceives o A casual critical comment about your performance from your boss the week before she is to decide whether or not to promote you will be perceived different if you were not up for promotion (different situational contexts) Social Identity Theory - Social identity theory is a theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. As a result, our sense of self is composed of personal identity and social identity - Personal identity: based on our unique personal characteristics (e.g. interests, abilities) www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit