Textbook Notes - Chapter 5

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10 Nov 2010
MGTB27 / 01 Week 4
Why Study Motivation?
- Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour
- Motivation is important in contemporary organizations because there is a need for increased
productivity in order to be globally competitive, the rapid changes that contemporary
organizations are undergoing
- There is no single all-purpose motivation theory but rather a good set of theories that
recognize human diversity, explains how people are self-motivated or require external
motivation, and recognizes that people may be affected by how they see others being treated
What is Motivation?
- 7KHRUJDQL]DWLRQ¶s perspective of someone being motivated usually means that the person
Basic Characteristics of Motivation
- Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
- Four aspects of motivation: effort, persistence, direction, and goals:
- Effort
o 7KHVWUHQJWKRIWKHSHUVRVZRUN-related behaviour or the amount of effort the
person exhibits on the job (for different activities, there are different efforts)
o E.g. a loading dock worker might carry heavier crates to exhibit greater effort
o E.g. a researcher may reveal greater effort by searching out an article in some
obscure technical journal
- Persistence
o The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks
o E.g. loading dock worker who stacks the heaviest crates for two hours and then goofs
off for six hours is not seen as especially highly motivated
- Direction
o The direction RIWKHSHUVRQ¶VZRUN-related behaviour (also quality of work)
o Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization?
o E.g. motivated software designers design software, not play computer games
- Goals
o All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed
o In organizations, employee goals might include high productivity, good attendance,
or creative decisions
o Goals such as absenteeism, sabotage, and embezzlement channel their persistent
efforts in directions that are dysfunctional for the organization
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
- Some people are motivated by external factors in the environment (e.g. supervision or pay)
while others are self-motivated without the application of external factors
- Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and
is usually self-applied
o Examples: feelings for achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence
- Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually
applied by someone other than the person being motivated
o Examples: pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and forms of supervision
Chapter 5 ± Theories of Work Motivation (pg. 144 ± 171)
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- Some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities (e.g. a promotion or compliment
might be applied by the boss but might be a clear signal of achievement and competence)
motivation is autonomous or controlled (whether intrinsic or extrinsic motivation)
- Autonomous motivation is when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
- Controlled motivation is when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or
extrinsic award
- Sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual
internalizes (becomes a part of them) the values or attitudes associated with a behaviour and
no longer requires the extrinsic factor to motivate him/her to perform the behaviour
- Autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance especially on complex tasks
- There is debate that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic
motivation stemming from the task itself
- When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the motivating potential of intrinsic
rewards decreases (may feel less competent and in control of their behaviour since they
believe that their performance is controlled by the environment and they perform well
because of money ± controlled motivation)
- Another research found that the negative effect of extrinsic reward so intrinsic motivation
occurs only under very limited conditions and they are easily avoidable
Motivation and Performance
- Performance can be defined as the extent to which an organizational member contributes to
achieving the objectives of the organization
- Motivation as well as: personality, general cognitive ability, task understanding, emotional
intelligence, and change all contribute to performance
- There are two types of intelligence or mental ability that influences performance:
general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence:
- General Cognitive Ability
o Cognitive ability is often referred to what most people call intelligence/mental ability
processing capacities and cognitive resources
o ,QFOXGHVDQLQGLYLGXDO¶Voverall capacity and efficiency for processing information as
well as cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities
required to perform mental tasks
o General cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job
performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations (includes manual and mental tasks)
o General cognitive ability is a better predictor of performance for more complex and
higher-level jobs that require the use of cognitive skills and information processing
- Emotional Intelligence
o Involves the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought,
understand and reason about emotions, and manage emotions in oneself and others
o Individuals with high EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of
emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action
o Peter Salovey and John Mayer developed an EI model that consists of four
interrelated sets of skills or branches
Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and other
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non-verbal behaviour
x This step is the most basic level of EI and is necessary to be able to
perform the other steps in the model
Using emotions to facilitate thinking
x Ability to use and assimilate to use emotions and emotional
x Able to use emotions in functional ways (e.g. make decisions)
emotions that can help one to see things in different ways from
different perspectives
Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signal conveyed by
x Being able to understand the emotional information, the determinants
and consequences of emotions, and how emotions change over time
x People understand how different situations and events generate
emotions as well as how they and others are influenced by various
x E.g. wait until someone is in a good mood to ask for a favour
Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
well as emotional relationships
x Individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own
x E.g. being calm when feeling angry or upset; being able to excite and
x To be effective at managing emotions, one must be able to perceive
emotions, integrate and assimilate emotions, and be knowledgeable of
and understand emotions
o EI can predict performance in a number of areas including job performances and
academic performance
o EI was found to be more important for the job performance of employees with lower
levels of cognitive ability and of less importance for jobs with high cognitive ability
The Motivation-Performance Relationship
- Instead of personality, general cognitive ability, and emotional intelligence, poor
performance can also be due to a poor understanding of the task or luck and chance factors
that can damage the performance of the most highly motivated individuals
- The opposite can also occur where there may be weak motivated individuals who perform
well because of some luck or chance factors that boosts performance
- High motivation will not result in high performance if employees have low general
cognitive ability and emotional intelligence, do not understand their jobs, or encounter
unavoidable obstacles over which they have no control
- Linking pay to performance may not work if employees do not have the important skills
Need Theories of Work Motivation
- Need theories are motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the
conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that
contributes to performance
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