Textbook Notes (380,907)
CA (168,274)
UTSC (19,296)
MGH (426)
MGHD27H3 (37)
Chapter 5

Textbook Notes - Chapter 5

12 Pages
63 Views

Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Joanna Heathcote

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 12 pages of the document.
MGTB27 / 01 Week 4
Why Study Motivation?
- Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour
- Motivation is important in contemporary organizations because there is a need for increased
productivity in order to be globally competitive, the rapid changes that contemporary
organizations are undergoing
- There is no single all-purpose motivation theory but rather a good set of theories that
recognize human diversity, explains how people are self-motivated or require external
motivation, and recognizes that people may be affected by how they see others being treated
What is Motivation?
- 7KHRUJDQL]DWLRQ¶s perspective of someone being motivated usually means that the person
ZRUNV³KDUG´³NHHSVDW´KLVKHUZRUNDQGGLUHFWVKLVKHUEHKDYLRXUWRZDUGDSSURSULDWH
outcomes
Basic Characteristics of Motivation
- Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
- Four aspects of motivation: effort, persistence, direction, and goals:
- Effort
o 7KHVWUHQJWKRIWKHSHUVRVZRUN-related behaviour or the amount of effort the
person exhibits on the job (for different activities, there are different efforts)
o E.g. a loading dock worker might carry heavier crates to exhibit greater effort
o E.g. a researcher may reveal greater effort by searching out an article in some
obscure technical journal
- Persistence
o The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks
o E.g. loading dock worker who stacks the heaviest crates for two hours and then goofs
off for six hours is not seen as especially highly motivated
- Direction
o The direction RIWKHSHUVRQ¶VZRUN-related behaviour (also quality of work)
o Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization?
o E.g. motivated software designers design software, not play computer games
- Goals
o All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed
o In organizations, employee goals might include high productivity, good attendance,
or creative decisions
o Goals such as absenteeism, sabotage, and embezzlement channel their persistent
efforts in directions that are dysfunctional for the organization
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
- Some people are motivated by external factors in the environment (e.g. supervision or pay)
while others are self-motivated without the application of external factors
- Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and
is usually self-applied
o Examples: feelings for achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence
- Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually
applied by someone other than the person being motivated
o Examples: pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and forms of supervision
Chapter 5 ± Theories of Work Motivation (pg. 144 ± 171)
www.notesolution.com
MGTB27 / 02 Week 4
- Some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities (e.g. a promotion or compliment
might be applied by the boss but might be a clear signal of achievement and competence)
- Self-determination theory 6'7LVDWKHRU\RIPRWLYDWLRQWKDWFRQVLGHUVZKHWKHUSHRSOH¶V
motivation is autonomous or controlled (whether intrinsic or extrinsic motivation)
- Autonomous motivation is when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
- Controlled motivation is when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or
extrinsic award
- Sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual
internalizes (becomes a part of them) the values or attitudes associated with a behaviour and
no longer requires the extrinsic factor to motivate him/her to perform the behaviour
- Autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance especially on complex tasks
- There is debate that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic
motivation stemming from the task itself
- When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the motivating potential of intrinsic
rewards decreases (may feel less competent and in control of their behaviour since they
believe that their performance is controlled by the environment and they perform well
because of money ± controlled motivation)
- Another research found that the negative effect of extrinsic reward so intrinsic motivation
occurs only under very limited conditions and they are easily avoidable
Motivation and Performance
- Performance can be defined as the extent to which an organizational member contributes to
achieving the objectives of the organization
- Motivation as well as: personality, general cognitive ability, task understanding, emotional
intelligence, and change all contribute to performance
- There are two types of intelligence or mental ability that influences performance:
general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence:
- General Cognitive Ability
o Cognitive ability is often referred to what most people call intelligence/mental ability
o General cognitive ability LVDWHUPXVHGWRUHIHUWRDSHUVRQ¶VEDVLFLQIRUPDWLRQ
processing capacities and cognitive resources
o ,QFOXGHVDQLQGLYLGXDO¶Voverall capacity and efficiency for processing information as
well as cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities
required to perform mental tasks
o General cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job
performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations (includes manual and mental tasks)
o General cognitive ability is a better predictor of performance for more complex and
higher-level jobs that require the use of cognitive skills and information processing
o (GXFDWLRQLVDQLPSRUWDQWLQGLFDWRURIRQH¶VLQWHOOLJHQFH
- Emotional Intelligence
o Emotional intelligence (,LVWKHDELOLW\WRXQGHUVWDQGDQGPDQDJHRQH¶VRZQDQG
RWKHU¶VIHHOLQJVDQGHPRWLRQV
o Involves the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought,
understand and reason about emotions, and manage emotions in oneself and others
o Individuals with high EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of
emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action
o Peter Salovey and John Mayer developed an EI model that consists of four
interrelated sets of skills or branches
Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and other
www.notesolution.com
MGTB27 / 03 Week 4
x ([DPSOHDEOHWRDFFXUDWHO\LGHQWLI\HPRWLRQVLQSHRSOH¶VIDFHVDQGLQ
non-verbal behaviour
x This step is the most basic level of EI and is necessary to be able to
perform the other steps in the model
Using emotions to facilitate thinking
x Ability to use and assimilate to use emotions and emotional
H[SHULHQFHVWRJXLGHRQH¶VWKLQNLQJDQGUHDVRning
x Able to use emotions in functional ways (e.g. make decisions)
x 6WDJHLQYROYHVEHLQJDEOHWRVKLIWRQH¶VHPRWLRQVDQGJHQHUDWHQHZ
emotions that can help one to see things in different ways from
different perspectives
Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signal conveyed by
emotions
x Being able to understand the emotional information, the determinants
and consequences of emotions, and how emotions change over time
x People understand how different situations and events generate
emotions as well as how they and others are influenced by various
emotions
x E.g. wait until someone is in a good mood to ask for a favour
Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
x $ELOLW\WRPDQDJHRQH¶VRZQDQGRWKHUV¶IHHOLQJVDQGHPRWLRQVDV
well as emotional relationships
x Individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own
HPRWLRQVDVZHOODVRWKHUV¶HPRWLRQVWRVXLWWKHVLWXDWLRQ
x E.g. being calm when feeling angry or upset; being able to excite and
HQWKXVHRWKHUVDEOHWRORZHUDQRWKHUSHUVRQ¶Vanger
x To be effective at managing emotions, one must be able to perceive
emotions, integrate and assimilate emotions, and be knowledgeable of
and understand emotions
o EI can predict performance in a number of areas including job performances and
academic performance
o EI was found to be more important for the job performance of employees with lower
levels of cognitive ability and of less importance for jobs with high cognitive ability
The Motivation-Performance Relationship
- Instead of personality, general cognitive ability, and emotional intelligence, poor
performance can also be due to a poor understanding of the task or luck and chance factors
that can damage the performance of the most highly motivated individuals
- The opposite can also occur where there may be weak motivated individuals who perform
well because of some luck or chance factors that boosts performance
- High motivation will not result in high performance if employees have low general
cognitive ability and emotional intelligence, do not understand their jobs, or encounter
unavoidable obstacles over which they have no control
- Linking pay to performance may not work if employees do not have the important skills
Need Theories of Work Motivation
- Need theories are motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the
conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that
contributes to performance
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
MGTB27 01 Week 4 Chapter 5 Theories of Work Motivation (pg. 144 171) Why Study Motivation? - Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour - Motivation is important in contemporary organizations because there is a need for increased productivity in order to be globally competitive, the rapid changes that contemporary organizations are undergoing - There is no single all-purpose motivation theory but rather a good set of theories that recognize human diversity, explains how people are self-motivated or require external motivation, and recognizes that people may be affected by how they see others being treated What is Motivation? - %K047J,3L],9L43s perspective of someone being motivated usually means that the person Z47N8K,7N0058,9KL8 K07Z47N,3L70.98KL8 K07-0K,;L4:794Z,7,557457L,90 outcomes Basic Characteristics of Motivation - Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal - Four aspects of motivation: effort, persistence, direction, and goals: - Effort o %K089703J9K419K05078438Z47N-related behaviour or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job (for different activities, there are different efforts) o E.g. a loading dock worker might carry heavier crates to exhibit greater effort o E.g. a researcher may reveal greater effort by searching out an article in some obscure technical journal - Persistence o The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks o E.g. loading dock worker who stacks the heaviest crates for two hours and then goofs off for six hours is not seen as especially highly motivated - Direction o The direction 419K05078438Z47N-related behaviour (also quality of work) o Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization? o E.g. motivated software designers design software, not play computer games - Goals o All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed o In organizations, employee goals might include high productivity, good attendance, or creative decisions o Goals such as absenteeism, sabotage, and embezzlement channel their persistent efforts in directions that are dysfunctional for the organization Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation - Some people are motivated by external factors in the environment (e.g. supervision or pay) while others are self-motivated without the application of external factors - Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and is usually self-applied o Examples: feelings for achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence - Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated o Examples: pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and forms of supervision www.notesolution.comMGTB27 02 Week 4 - Some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities (e.g. a promotion or compliment might be applied by the boss but might be a clear signal of achievement and competence) - Self-determination theory $% L8,9K04741249L;,9L439K,9.438L078ZK09K075045O08 motivation is autonomous or controlled (whether intrinsic or extrinsic motivation) - Autonomous motivation is when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors - Controlled motivation is when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic award - Sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual internalizes (becomes a part of them) the values or attitudes associated with a behaviour and no longer requires the extrinsic factor to motivate himher to perform the behaviour - Autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance especially on complex tasks - There is debate that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself - When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases (may feel less competent and in control of their behaviour since they believe that their performance is controlled by the environment and they perform well because of money controlled motivation) - Another research found that the negative effect of extrinsic reward so intrinsic motivation occurs only under very limited conditions and they are easily avoidable Motivation and Performance - Performance can be defined as the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization - Motivation as well as: personality, general cognitive ability, task understanding, emotional intelligence, and change all contribute to performance - There are two types of intelligence or mental ability that influences performance: general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence: - General Cognitive Ability o Cognitive ability is often referred to what most people call intelligencemental ability o General cognitive ability L8,9072:80947010794,5078438-,8L.L31472,9L43 processing capacities and cognitive resources o ,3.O:08,3L3L;L:,O8overall capacity and efficiency for processing information as well as cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities required to perform mental tasks o General cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations (includes manual and mental tasks) o General cognitive ability is a better predictor of performance for more complex and higher-level jobs that require the use of cognitive skills and information processing o :.,9L43L8,3L25479,39L3L.,947414308L390OOLJ03.0 - Emotional Intelligence o Emotional intelligence , L89K0,-LOL994:30789,3,32,3,J043084Z3,3 49K078100OL3J8,30249L438 o Involves the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions, and manage emotions in oneself and others o Individuals with high EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action o Peter Salovey and John Mayer developed an EI model that consists of four interrelated sets of skills or branches Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and other www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit