Textbook Notes - Chapter 8

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10 Nov 2010
MGTB27 / 01 Week 8
- Google has a culture that includes collaboration, a flat structure with very little hierarchy,
kitchens that serve healthy food and encourage employees to eat together and socialize
Social Influence in Organizations
- People often act differently from how they normally would under social influence
- In many social settings, people are dependent on others and this sets the stage for influence to
Information Dependence and Effect Dependence
- Information dependence is reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and
act (e.g. How nice is our boss? How satisfying is this job of mine?)
- Individuals are motivated to comparing their own thoughts, feelings, and actions with those to
acquire information about their adequacy (can be as strong as objective reality)
- Effect dependence is reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and
- Having an interest in how an individual member think and act as well as having a member
who frequently desires the approval of the group promotes effect dependence
- Organizations have plenty of effects available to influence individual members
o Formal level: managers have a fair array of rewards and punishments available
o Informal level: reward with cooperative behaviour with praise, friendship and
lack of cooperation might be harassment or name calling
Social Influence in Action
- Much of the information and many of the effects on which group members are dependent are
oriented toward enforcing group norms
Motives for Social Conformity
- Like how the Roman Catholic priest conform to the norms of the church hierarchy, there must
be systems in place that classify different motives for conformity
- Compliance
o Compliance is conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards
or avoid punishment (simplest and most direct motive for conformity)
o Primarily involves effect dependence
o Individuals only adjusts their behaviour to the norm and is not really subscribing to
the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm (e.g. convicts conforming to
formal prison norms out of compliance)
- Identification
o Identification is conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who
promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself
o Elements of effect dependence and information dependence is present here
o E.g. a newly promoted executive attempts to dress and talk like her admired boss
- Internalization
o Internalization is conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the
beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm
o Conformity is due to internal rather than external forces (confirm because it is seen as
right, not because it achieves rewards, avoid punishment, or please others)
Chapter 8 ± Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture (pg. 250 ± 277)
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MGTB27 / 02 Week 8
o E.g. religious leaders conform to the norms of their religions
The Subtle Power of Compliance
- Disagreement on compliance can be reduced if one ceases conformity (person may adopt a
scapegoat role) or gradually having them accept the beliefs, values, and attitudes of the norms
- Simple compliance can set the stage for more internalized beliefs and this process is known as
organizational socialization
Organizational Socialization
- Socialization is the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours
that are necessary to function in a group or organization
- Socialization is the primary learning process for new members where the organization
- Different socialization methods (e.g. mentoring) influence proximal socialization outcomes
(e.g. learning) which lead to more longer-term outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction)
- Learning in socialization for newcomers are learning of:
o Rask (e.g. skills and knowledge needed to perform their job),
o Role (e.g. learning appropriate behaviour and expectations)
o Work group (learning norms and values)
- Goal of socialization is to provide new hires with information and knowledge about their role
to avoid problems of role conflict and role ambiguity
- There are two kinds of fit that are important for socialization (proximal outcomes)
o Person-job fit/ P-J fit
requirements of a job
o Person-organization fit/ P-O fit
- P-J and P-O fit are strongly influenced by the socialization process and related to job attitudes
and behaviours
- Organizational identification is the extent to which an individual defines him or herself in
terms of the organization and what is perceived to represent
- Socialization is important because it has a direct effect on proximal socialization outcomes
(e.g. learning, P-J fit and P-O fit) which leads to more positive distal outcomes (e.g.
organizational identification)
Stages of Socialization
- Since organizational socialization is an ongoing process, we can divide this process up into 3
stages: one before entry, one immediately following entry, and after one has been a member
for some period of time
- Anticipatory Socialization
o Happens a considerable amount even before a person becomes a member of the
o Can acquire anticipatory socialization through attending college or university or when
organizational representatives discuss the organization with potential hires
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MGTB27 / 03 Week 8
o Recruits are interested in having their personal needs and expectations fulfilled
- Encounter
o The new recruit is armed with some expectations about organizational life and
encounters the day-to-day reality of this life
boss and co-workers
o Organizations and its experienced members are looking for an acceptable degree of
conformity to organizational norms and appropriate role behaviour
- Role Management
the organization
o Member may start to balance the now-familiar organizational role with non-work roles
and family demands (experiences adds to internalizing the norms for work)
Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract
- People seldom join organizations without expectations about what membership will be like
and what they expect to receive in return for their efforts
- E.g. management major students have expectations about what they will be doing when they
become management trainees at IBM
- Many of these expectations are often unrealistic and obligations between new members and
organizations are often breached
- Unrealistic Expectations
o Research indicated that many people entering organizations hold may inaccurate and
often unrealistically high expectations
o When their expectations are not met, they experience a reality shock
o Newcomers who have higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, job performance, and job survival and lower intentions to
o Unrealistic expectations stem from: occupational stereotypes (e.g. expecting hospital
life to be like *UH\¶V$QDWRP\), communicating stereotypes (e.g. wrong emphasis of
learned skills), and overzealous recruiters who paint rosy pictures to attract job
- Psychological Contract
o A psychological contract are beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal
obligations and promises between them and their organization (e.g. employee may
expect to receive bonuses and promotions in return for hard work and loyalty)
o A psychological contract breach occurs when an employee perceives that his or her
organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the
psychological contract
o Psychological contract breach can have a negative effect on employee job attitudes
(lower satisfaction and organizational commitment as well as higher turnover
intentions) and behaviours (lower OCB and job performance)
o Psychological contract breach occurs when recruiters promise more than their
organization can provide to attract the best job applicants, when newcomers lack
sufficient information to form accurate perceptions, and when organizations change
(e.g. downsizing and restructuring)
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