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Chapter 5

MGHD27H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Social Capital, Organizational Commitment, Peter Drucker


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Joanna Heathcote
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5-Motivation
WHY STUDY MOTIVATION?
Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour, and it
has interested managers, researchers, teachers etc for years
It has become more important in contemporary organizations due to a need for
increased productivity and to be globally competitive
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
EFFORT- the strength of the persons work-related behaviour
PERSISTENCE- strength to keep going, never rest on your laurels
DIRECTION- Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the
organization?
oMotivation means working smart as well as working hard
GOALS- all motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is
directed
EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Motivation that stems from the direct relationship
between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied
oFeelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence derived
from performing ones job are examples of intrinsic motivation
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Motivation that stems from the work environment
external to the task; it is usually applied by others
oPay, fringe benefits, company policies and various forms of supervision are
examples of extrinisic motivation
Some motivators have features of both such as?
SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY A theory of motivation that considers whether
peoples motivation is autonomous or controlled
oAUTONOMOUS MOTIVATION When people are motivated by intrinsic
factors
oCONTROLLED MOTIVATION When people are motivated to obtain a
desired consequence or extrinsic reward
A key aspect of SDT is the extent to which ones motivation is autonomous versus
controlled
Autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance
Some research has shown that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the
intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself
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However the review of the research in this area reached the conclusion that the
negative effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation occurs only under very
limited conditions and are easily avoidable
MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE
PERFORMANCE The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving
the objectives of the organization
GENERAL COGNITIVE ABILITY A persons basic information processing
capacities and cognitive resources
oIncludes a number of cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial
and reasoning abilities that are required to perform mental tasks
oGCA predicts learning and training success as well as job performance
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEThe ability to understand and manage ones
own feelings as well as others feelings and emotions
oIndividuals high on EI are able to identify and understand the meanings
of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for
problem solving, reasoning, thinking and action
oPeter Salovey and John Mayer created an EI model consisting of four
interrelated sets of skills that represent sequential steps that form a
hierarchy going in reverse order (1 leads to 2 leads to 3 etc)
1.Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others
An example of this would be to accurately identify emotions
in peoples faces and in non-verbal behaviour
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2.Using Emotion to Facilitate Thinking
Ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional
experiences to guide and facilitate ones thinking and
reasoning
Also involves being able to shift ones emotions and
generate new emotions that can help one to see things in
different ways and from different perspectives
3.Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals
conveyed by emotions
This stage involves being able to understand emotional
information, the determinants and consequences of
emotions, and how emotions evolve and change over time
4.Managing Emotions so as to attain specific goals
Ability to manage ones own and others feelings and
emotions as well as emotional relationships
At this stage one is able to regulate, adjust, and change his
or her own emotions as well as others emotions to suit the
situation
oEI is more important in jobs with low cognitive level
THE MOTIVATION-PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP
Must note the possibility that the performance level can be low when the motivation
is high and vice versa
NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
NEED THEORIES Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have
and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a
way that contributes to performance
1.Needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals
can satisfy by acquiring certain incentives or achieving particular goals
2.NEEDSBEHAVIOURINCENTIVES AND GOALS
3.Note that need theories are concerned with what motivate workers
4.Process theories are concerned with how various factors motivate people
MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
According to Maslow, humans have five sets of needs that are arranged in a
hierarchy
1.Physiological Needs
Needs to Survive
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