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Chapter 9


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Joanna Heathcote
Chapter
9

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CHAPTER 9- LEADERSHIP
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others
in an organizational context
STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP Leadership that involves the ability to anticipate ,
envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically and work with others to initiate
changes that will create a viable future for the organization
Note that there are informal leaders and formal leaders that have influence partially
due to their position
RESEARCH ON LEADERSHIP TRAITS
Traits Individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual, ability,
and personality
Research shows that there are some traits associates with leadership
LIMITATIONS OF THE TRAIT APPROACH
Difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or leaders produce these
traits
Must take into account the situation that in which leadership occurs
THE BEHAVIOUR OF LEADERS
CONSIDERATION AND INITIATIN STRUCTURE
oConsideration The extent to which a leader is approachable and shows
personal concern and respect for employees job satisfaction
oInitiating Structure The degree to which a leader concentrates on group
goal attainment job performance
oCheck back for the class notes on this
LEADER REWARDS AND PUNISHMENT BEHAVIOURS
Reward Behaviour The leaders use of compliments, tangible benefits, and
deserved special treatment
oWhen rewards are made contingent on performance then employees should
perform at a higher level
oPositively related to employees perceptions, attitudes and behaviour
Punishment Behaviour The leaders use of reprimands or unfavourable task
assignments and the active withholding of rewards
oAs long as its contingent on undesirable behaviour then it will be effective
SITUATIONAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
FIEDLERS CONTINGENCY THEORY AND COGNITIVE RESOURCE THEORY
Contingency theory: states that the association between leadership orientation
and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for
exerting influence
Leadership orientation is measured by having leaders describe their LPC
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o A current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time
accomplishing a task
oHigh score: means that you are able to see good qualities in the LPC
regardless of whether they were able to do the job or not and that you are
relationship oriented
oLow score: means that you are very task oriented and do not regard other
qualities as important if they cannot complete the job
SITUATIONAL FAVOURABLENESS
oFactors that affect the situational or contingency part of the theory are
Leader-member relations good relationship= more chance of
influencing them
Task Structure When the task is highly structured the leader
should be able to exert considerable influence on the group
Position Power Formal authority granted to the leader by the
organization
Study that diagram
RESEARCH EVIDENCE
oNeeds refinement
COGNITIVE RESOURCE THEORY
oA leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leaders
cognitive resources contribute to effective leadership
Experience helps in high stress situations and intelligence helps in
low stress situations
Indicates that traits are important for leadership effectiveness in
certain situations
HOUSES PATH-GOAL THEORY
Robert Houses theory concerned with the situations under which various leader
behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented) are most
effective
THE THEORY House proposed that the most important activities of leaders are
those that clarify the paths to various goals of interests to employees
oYou can accomplish your goal if you can help me accomplish mine
oStill make it contingent on performance
LEADER BEHAVIOUR
oDIRECTIVE BEHAVIOUR: identical to initiative structure, good for those
who like to be told what to do
oSUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOUR friendly and approachable, identical to
consideration
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