Chapter 1 Notes

28 views6 pages
8 Apr 2011

For unlimited access to Textbook Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Organizations: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort
Social Inventions
essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people, regardless of
amount of physical capital they have
People who represent both opportunities and challenges
OB – understand people and manage them to work effectively
Goal Accomplishment
All orgs work towards achieving desired results (goals of all kinds)
OBconcerned with how orgs can survive and adapt to change
Behaviours people must have to survive and adapt:
-Be motivated to join and remain in the org
-Accomplish work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality and service
-Willing to continuously learn and upgrade knowledge & skills
-Flexible and innovative
Group Effort
Orgs depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals
OBconcerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork
Organizational Behaviour: the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in orgs
OB studies these attitudes and behaviours and give insights on how to
manage & change them
How org can be structured more effectively (employee learning, motivation,
culture, leadership)
How events in their external environments affect orgs
Interesting (human nature), important (managers, employees, consumers), makes
a difference (competitive advantage)
Goals of Organizational Behaviour:
Predicting Organizational Behaviour
allow prediction of future occurrence
Explaining Organizational Behaviourcomplicated, may have multiple reasons
find causes of certain behaviours predicted or occurred
underlying causes can change overtime
Managing Organizational Behaviour
Management: the art of getting things accomplished in orgs through others
If behaviour can be predicted & explained, it can often be controlled/managed
Plan, organize, resource, lead/direct, control
Page 1 of 6
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Prediction & explanation constitute analysis; management constitute actions
The Classical View and Bureaucracy
Classical Viewpoint: advocated high specialization of labour, intensive
coordination, and centralized decision making (Henri Fayol, James D. Mooney, Lyndall Urwick)
Each department solve own problems, upper management make all decisions
Suggested managers to have fairly few workers to maintain control, except for
lower level jobs
Scientific Management: using careful research to determine the optimum
degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks
Frederick Taylor: father of Scientific Management
-Concerned with job design and structure of work on shop floor
-Supported development of written instructions clearly defined work procedures
-Standardization of workers movements and breaks for max efficiency
-Functional Foremanship: specialization in particular functions
Bureaucracy: a mean of rationally managing complex organizations
Max Weber: German social theorist; ideal/theoretical model that would
standardize org behaviour and provide workers with security and sense of purpose (global
-Strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single superior
-Criteria for selection and promotion based on impersonal technical skills rather than nepotism
or favouritism or intuition
-A set of detailed rules, regulations, and procedures ensuring that the job gets done regardless
of who the specific worker is
-The use of strict specialization to match duties with technical competence
-The centralization of power at the top of the org
Mary Parker Follet: business philosopher; noted classical view of management
seemed to take for granted an essential conflict of interest between managers and employees
The Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy
Hawthorne Studies: research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western
Electric in the 1920-30s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity
and work adjustment
Concerned with the impact of fatigue, rest pauses, and lighting on productivity
Employees became resistant to management through strong informal group
mechanisms like norms that limited productivity to less than expected (do no more than what is
Human Relations Movement: critique of classical management and
bureaucracy that advocated more people oriented styles that were catered more to the social &
psychological needs of employees; dysfunctional aspects; encouraged flexible system with open
communication, participation from employees in decision making and less rigid, more decentralized
Page 2 of 6
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class