MGHD27H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Extraversion And Introversion, Conscientiousness, Reinforcement

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8 Apr 2011
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CHAPTER 2: PERSONALITY AND LEARNING
WHAT IS PERSONALITY?
Personality: relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an
individual interacts with his/her environment and how he/she feels, thinks, behaves
Reacting to people, situations, problems; summarizes an individual’s personal style in dealing with
the world – distinctive
Consists of a number of dimensions and traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic
predisposition and by ones long term learning history
Susceptible to change through adult learning experiences
PERSONALITY AND ORGANZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Personality important factor of OB (motivation, attitudes, performance, leadership)
WWII, personality tests for choosing military personnel adapted by businesses
Dispositional Approach: focus on individual dispositions/personalities; individuals possess
stable traits that influence attitudes/behaviours; predisposed to behave in certain ways
failed to support the usefulness of personality as a predictor of OB & job performance ;
inadequate measures of personality characteristics
Situational Approach: characteristics of organizational setting (rewards and punishment),
influence feelings, attitudes, and behaviour
both approaches important person-situation debate
Interactionist Approach (Interactionism): OB is a function of dispositions and situation
Weak situation: org with loosely defined roles, few rules, weak rewards, and
punishments; largely depend on personality of the individual
Strong situation: org with clear roles, more rules, and punishments; personality
has little impact
No best personality; key factor = fit (putting the right person in the right job)
renewed interest in personality researches: increased emphasis on service jobs with customer
contact, concern about ethics and integrity, teamwork and cooperation
The Five Factor Model of Personality (Big Five)
Extraversion: extravert absent more; high = outgoing, extravert vs. low = shy, introvert
Emotional stability/Neuroticism: (strongest predictors of motivation) degree to which a person
has appropriate emotional control; high = self confident, high self esteem vs. low = self doubt,
depression
Agreeableness: extent to which a person is friendly and approachable; more = warm,
considerate vs. less = cold, aloof
Conscientiousness: (strongest predictor of overall job performance and motivation) degree to
which a person is responsible and achievement oriented; more = dependable, positively motivated
vs. less = unreliable; facilitate performance of all jobs, related to retention and attendance at work
and important antidote for counterproductive behaviours like theft, absenteeism and discipline
Openness to experience: extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas;
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more = creative and innovative vs. less = favour status quo
Each dimension relatively independent and related to job performance, cross- cultural
Related to work motivation and job satisfaction
Related to job search and career success
Related to vocational interests and preferences
Locus of Control
A set of beliefs about if ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal/external forces
Refers to individuals beliefs about location of the factors that control their behaviour
high internals: those who believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides
within themselves see stronger links b/w effort they put in and performance level that they
achieve and believe that org will notice their high performance and reward
more satisfied with their jobs, earn more $$ and achieve higher positions
high externals: those who believe that external forces determine their behavioursee the
world unpredictable; luck, fate, powerful ppl control their destiny
-Self-Monitoring
The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social
settings and relationships
Ex of low self monitoring: people who behave in spite of their social surroundings and arent
concerned about not fitting in
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Emotional
StabilityAgreeableness Conscientiousness Openness to
Experience
Sociable,
Talkative
Vs.
Withdrawn,
Shy
Stable,
Confident
Vs.
Depressed,
Anxious
Tolerant,
Cooperative
Vs.
Cold,
Rude
Dependable,
Responsible
Vs.
Careless,
Impulsive
Curious,
Original
Vs.
Dull,
Unimaginative
Extraversion
Behaviour determined by:
-Fate
-Luck
-Powerful people
HIGH EXTERNAL
CONTROL
HIGH INTERNAL
CONTROL
Behaviour determined by:
-Self-initiative
-Personal actions
-Free will
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High monitors: show concern for socially appropriate behaviour, try to tune into social and
interpersonal cues and to regulate their behaviour and self presentation according to these
cues
Tend to move toward jobs that require a degree of role playing and the exercise of their
self presentation skills (communication & persuasive ability, flexibility, adaptability)
sales, law, public relations, politics
More involved in jobs, perform at higher level and emerge as leader, more
promotion
Experience more role stress and less commitment to org; weak innovators, difficult
resisting social pressure
-Self-Esteem
Degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation (high = favourable self image, certain
about the correctness of their opinions, attitudes and behaviours)
Behavioural plasticity theory: ppl with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to
external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem more pliable
Events and ppl in org have more impact on the beliefs and actions of those with low self
esteemseek social approval from others; unable to react well to ambiguous and
stressful situations
Negative feedback lowers performance of low self esteemmanager shouldnt direct
criticism at person
High self esteem have higher job satisfaction and job performance
Opportunity for participation in decision making, autonomy and interesting work are
positively related to self esteem
-Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour
Positive and Negative Affectivity
Positive Affectivity (PA): propensity to view the world, including oneself and other ppl,
in a positive light – happy, cheerful, enthusiastic, lively, sociable, energetic
Negative Affectivity (NA): propensity to view the world, including oneself and other
ppl, in a negative light – unhappy, distressed, depressed
Emotional dispositions that predict ppl’s general emotional tendencies which can
influence ppl’s emotions and mood states at work, job attitudes and work behaviour
Proactive Personality
A stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a
range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in ones environment
Relatively unconstrained by situational forces and act to change and influence their
environment
Proactive Behaviour: taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new
ones
Proactive ppl: search and identify opportunities, show initiative, take action and
persevere until they bring meaningful changejob performance, tolerance for stress,
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Document Summary

Interactionist approach (interactionism): ob is a function of dispositions and situation both approaches important person-situation debate. Weak situation: org with loosely defined roles, few rules, weak rewards, and punishments; largely depend on personality of the individual. Page 1 of 11 www. notesolution. com more = creative and innovative vs. less = favour status quo. Unimaginative: each dimension relatively independent and related to job performance, cross- cultural, related to work motivation and job satisfaction, related to job search and career success, related to vocational interests and preferences. a set of beliefs about if one"s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal/external forces. refers to individuals" beliefs about location of the factors that control their behaviour. more satisfied with their jobs, earn more 12215 and achieve higher positions. high externals: those who believe that external forces determine their behaviour see the world unpredictable; luck, fate, powerful ppl control their destiny.

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