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MGHD27H3 (37)
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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Grover

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CHAPTER 5: THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
-Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.
-Basic characteristics of Motivation:
Effort: strength of ones work related behaviour; how much they put in
Persistence: putting effort in job continuously
Direction: putting persistent effort in the way that benefits the organization
Goals: putting persistent effort in a way to achieve a certain objective
-Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation: stems from the direct relationship b/w the worker and the task; usually
self-applied (ex. feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, & competence from
performing ones job)
Extrinsic motivation: stems from the work environment external to the task; usually applied
by others (ex. pay, fringe benefits, company policies)
Cant be cleared defined – ex. a job promotion (I) can give feeling of achievement (E)
-Motivation and Performance
Performance: extent to which an org. member contributes to achieving the orgs goals
Relationship b/w motivation and performance is NOT 1-1 b/c other factors (ex. personality
traits, intelligence) also affect performance
Two forms of intelligence:
General Cognitive Ability
Ones basic info processing capabilities and cognitive resources (mental ability)
Cognitive ability: verbal, numerical, spatial & reasoning abilities required to
perform mental tasks measured in aptitude tests
Predicts learning and training success & job performance
General cognitive ability and motivation are required for career success
Emotional Intelligence (EI)problem solving
Ability to understand and manage ones own and others feelings and emotions
Perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and
reason about emotions and manage emotions in oneself and others
Page 1 of 8
Perception of Emotions
Integration and
Assimilation of Emotions
Knowledge and
Understanding of Emotions
Management of Emotions
www.notesolution.com
Salovery & Mayerfirst model of emotional intelligence (bottom up)
Perception of emotions: ability to perceive emotions & to accurately identify
emotions of oneself and others (ex. from ppls faces & nonverbal)
Integration and assimilation of emotions: ability to use & assimilate emotions
and emotional experiences to guide and facilitate ones thinking and reasoning
(ex. decision making); shift ones emotions and generate new ones that can
help one to see things in diff ways
Knowledge and understanding of emotions: understand emotional info, the
determinants and consequences of emotions & how emotions evolve and
change over time (ex. diff situations generate & influence emotions – not to
ask for a favour when one is in a bad mood)
Management of emotions: manage ones own and others feelings and
emotions as well as emotional relationship – highest level of EIat this stage,
one is able to regulate, adjust & change own & others emotions to suit the
situation (ex. stay calm when angry
Cant consider motivation in isolation; high motivation doesnt mean results in high
performance if worker has low general cognitive ability & emotional intelligence & doesnt
understand job tasks
WHAT IS EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT?
-similar to intrinsic motivation, which involves some degree of effort, but differ in that it is how
individuals perform their jobs rather than how motivated they are
-William Kahn Engagement: extent to which an individual immerses their true self into their work
roles
Three psychological conditions contribute to engagement:
Psychological Meaningfulness: existence of incentives for ppl to engage (receive return
= feel worthwhile, useful, valuable and not taken for granted)
Psychological Safety: when they can employ and express themselves w/o fear of negative
consequences to their self image, status/career
Psychological Availability: when they feel they have the physical, emotional, cognitive
resources required to engage themselves in a situation
when engaged, they employ and express themselves physically, cognitively & emotionally
during role performances (high degree of attention & absorption)
two important components:
Attention: amount of time one spends thinking about a role
Absorption: being engrossed in a role and the intensity of ones focus on their roles
NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
-Need theories: motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs ppl have & the conditions they
will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance
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-Needs: physiological & psychological wants/desires one can satisfy by acquiring certain
incentives/achieving particular goals, stimulated by behaviour
NEEDS BEHAVIOUR INCENTIVES AND GOALS
-Need theories
are concerned with what motivates workers and process theories are concerned with
exactly how various factors motivate ppl
-Maslows Hierarchy of Needs lowest level unsatisfied need = greatest motivating potential
5 sets of needs
Physiological Needs: basic requirements for survival (min. pay for survival)
Safety Needs: security, stability, freedom from anxiety & structured & ordered
environment (safe working conditions, fair & sensible rules & regulations etc)
Belongingness Needs: social interaction, affection, love, companionship & friendship
(friendly & supportive supervision, opportunity for teamwork)
Esteem Needs: feelings fro adequacy, competence, independence, strength & confidence
& appreciation of these characteristics by others (chance to master tasks leading to
feelings of achievement awards, promotions, prestigious job titles)
Self-actualization Needs: most difficult to define – desire to develop ones true
potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express ones skills, talents &
emotions in a way that is most personally fulfilling- jobs that allow self development
No needs are the best motivators
Degree of motivation depends on the persons position in the need hierarchy
Ppl will keep working to move up the levels to achieve more satisfaction
-Alderfers ERG Theory
A three level hierarchical need theory of motivation that allows for movement up/down the
hierarchy
Existence Needs: similar to Maslows physiological & some safety (only those satisfied
by material conditions ) needs
Relatedness Needs: open, accurate & honest interaction and exchange of thoughts &
feelings with other org. memberssimilar to Maslows belongingness & some of esteem
(only that with feedback from others)
Growth Needs: strong personal involvement in work settingsfull utilization of ones
skills & abilities & creative development of new skills & abilities similar to Maslow’s
self actualization & some esteem (ones with achievement & responsibility)
Agrees with Maslow that ppl move up levels to get more satisfaction
Differences from Maslow:
ERG doesnt assume that a lower level need must be satisfied b4 going to the next level
-> doesnt propose rigid
hierarchy of needs so account for a wide variety of individual
differences in motive structure
Assumes if higher level needs are not satisfied, ppl will increase desire for gratification
of lower level needs (reverse direction – NOT possible in Maslow)
Page 3 of 8
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Description
CHAPTER 5: THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION WHAT IS MOTIVATION? - Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal. - Basic characteristics of Motivation: Effort: strength of ones work related behaviour; how much they put in Persistence: putting effort in job continuously Direction: putting persistenin the wayat benefits the organization Goals: putting persistent effort in a way to achieve a certain objective - Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation: stems frdirect relationshipthe worker and the task; usually self-applied (ex. feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, & competence from performing ones job) Extrinsic motivation: stems frwork environment external to the taskly applied by others (ex. pay, fringe benefits, company policies) Cant be cleared defined ex. a job promotion (I) can give feeling of achievement (E) - Motivation and Performance Performance: extent to which an org. member contributes to achieving the orgs goals Relationshipw motivation and performanNOT 1-1 bc other factors (ex. personality traits, intelligence) also affect performance Two forms of intelligence: General Cognitive Ability Ones basic info processing capabilities and cognitive resources (mental ability) Cognitive ability: verbal, numerical, spatial & reasoning abilities required to perform mental taskseasured in aptitude tests Predicts learning and training success & job performance General cognitive ability and motivation are required for career success Emotional Intelligence (EI) problem solving Ability to understand and manage ones own and others feelings and emotions Perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions and manage emotions in oneself and others Management of Emotions Knowledge and Understanding of Emotions Integration and Assimilation of Emotions Perception of Emotions Page 1 of 8 www.notesolution.com
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