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8 Apr 2011
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CHAPTER 5: THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
-Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.
-Basic characteristics of Motivation:
Effort: strength of one’s work related behaviour; how much they put in
Persistence: putting effort in job continuously
Direction: putting persistent effort in the way that benefits the organization
Goals: putting persistent effort in a way to achieve a certain objective
-Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation: stems from the direct relationship b/w the worker and the task; usually
self-applied (ex. feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, & competence from
performing one’s job)
Extrinsic motivation: stems from the work environment external to the task; usually applied
by others (ex. pay, fringe benefits, company policies)
Can’t be cleared defined – ex. a job promotion (I) can give feeling of achievement (E)
-Motivation and Performance
Performance: extent to which an org. member contributes to achieving the org’s goals
Relationship b/w motivation and performance is NOT 1-1 b/c other factors (ex. personality
traits, intelligence) also affect performance
Two forms of intelligence:
General Cognitive Ability
One’s basic info processing capabilities and cognitive resources (mental ability)
Cognitive ability: verbal, numerical, spatial & reasoning abilities required to
perform mental tasks – measured in aptitude tests
Predicts learning and training success & job performance
General cognitive ability and motivation are required for career success
Emotional Intelligence (EI) – problem solving
Ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions
Perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and
reason about emotions and manage emotions in oneself and others
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Perception of Emotions
Integration and
Assimilation of Emotions
Knowledge and
Understanding of Emotions
Management of Emotions
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Salovery & Mayer – first model of emotional intelligence (bottom up)
Perception of emotions: ability to perceive emotions & to accurately identify
emotions of oneself and others (ex. from ppl’s faces & nonverbal)
Integration and assimilation of emotions: ability to use & assimilate emotions
and emotional experiences to guide and facilitate one’s thinking and reasoning
(ex. decision making); shift one’s emotions and generate new ones that can
help one to see things in diff ways
Knowledge and understanding of emotions: understand emotional info, the
determinants and consequences of emotions & how emotions evolve and
change over time (ex. diff situations generate & influence emotions – not to
ask for a favour when one is in a bad mood)
Management of emotions: manage one’s own and others’ feelings and
emotions as well as emotional relationship – highest level of EI – at this stage,
one is able to regulate, adjust & change own & others’ emotions to suit the
situation (ex. stay calm when angry
Can’t consider motivation in isolation; high motivation doesn’t mean results in high
performance if worker has low general cognitive ability & emotional intelligence & doesn’t
understand job tasks
WHAT IS EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT?
-similar to intrinsic motivation, which involves some degree of effort, but differ in that it is how
individuals perform their jobs rather than how motivated they are
-William Kahn – Engagement: extent to which an individual immerses their true self into their work
roles
Three psychological conditions contribute to engagement:
Psychological Meaningfulness: existence of incentives for ppl to engage (receive return
= feel worthwhile, useful, valuable and not taken for granted)
Psychological Safety: when they can employ and express themselves w/o fear of negative
consequences to their self image, status/career
Psychological Availability: when they feel they have the physical, emotional, cognitive
resources required to engage themselves in a situation
when engaged, they employ and express themselves physically, cognitively & emotionally
during role performances (high degree of attention & absorption)
two important components:
Attention: amount of time one spends thinking about a role
Absorption: being engrossed in a role and the intensity of one’s focus on their roles
NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
-Need theories: motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs ppl have & the conditions they
will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance
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-Needs: physiological & psychological wants/desires one can satisfy by acquiring certain
incentives/achieving particular goals, stimulated by behaviour
NEEDS BEHAVIOUR INCENTIVES AND GOALS
-Need theories
are concerned with what motivates workers and process theories are concerned with
exactly how various factors motivate ppl
-Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – lowest level unsatisfied need = greatest motivating potential
5 sets of needs
Physiological Needs: basic requirements for survival (min. pay for survival)
Safety Needs: security, stability, freedom from anxiety & structured & ordered
environment (safe working conditions, fair & sensible rules & regulations etc)
Belongingness Needs: social interaction, affection, love, companionship & friendship
(friendly & supportive supervision, opportunity for teamwork)
Esteem Needs: feelings fro adequacy, competence, independence, strength & confidence
& appreciation of these characteristics by others (chance to master tasks leading to
feelings of achievement – awards, promotions, prestigious job titles)
Self-actualization Needs: most difficult to define – desire to develop one’s true
potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express one’s skills, talents &
emotions in a way that is most personally fulfilling- jobs that allow self development
No needs are the best motivators
Degree of motivation depends on the person’s position in the need hierarchy
Ppl will keep working to move up the levels to achieve more satisfaction
-Alderfer’s ERG Theory
A three level hierarchical need theory of motivation that allows for movement up/down the
hierarchy
Existence Needs: similar to Maslow’s physiological & some safety (only those satisfied
by material conditionsξ€€ξ€€ ) needs
Relatedness Needs: open, accurate & honest interaction and exchange of thoughts &
feelings with other org. members – similar to Maslow’s belongingness & some of esteem
(only that with feedback from others)
Growth Needs: strong personal involvement in work settings – full utilization of one’s
skills & abilities & creative development of new skills & abilities – similar to Maslow’s
self actualization & some esteem (ones with achievement & responsibility)
Agrees with Maslow that ppl move up levels to get more satisfaction
Differences from Maslow:
ERG doesn’t assume that a lower level need must be satisfied b4 going to the next level
-> doesn’t propose rigid
hierarchy of needs so account for a wide variety of individual
differences in motive structure
Assumes if higher level needs are not satisfied, ppl will increase desire for gratification
of lower level needs (reverse direction – NOT possible in Maslow)
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Document Summary

Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal. effort: strength of one"s work related behaviour; how much they put in. direction: putting persistent effort in the way that benefits the organization. goals: putting persistent effort in a way to achieve a certain objective. intrinsic motivation: stems from the direct relationship b/w the worker and the task; usually self-applied (ex. feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, & competence from performing one"s job) extrinsic motivation: stems from the work environment external to the task; usually applied by others (ex. pay, fringe benefits, company policies) can"t be cleared defined ex. a job promotion (i) can give feeling of achievement (e) performance: extent to which an org. member contributes to achieving the org"s goals. relationship b/w motivation and performance is not 1-1 b/c other factors (ex. personality traits, intelligence) also affect performance. one"s basic info processing capabilities and cognitive resources (mental ability)

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