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Appendix Notes

Management (MGH)
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APPENDIX (p.591-598)
The Basics of Organizational Behaviour Research
-Researches begin with a question – Hypothesis: a formal statement of the expected relationship between
two variables
-Variables: measures that can take on two or more values
-Types of Variables
Independent variable: a predictor or cause or variation in a dependent variable
Dependent variable: a variable that will vary as a result of changes in the indep. variable
Moderating variables: a var that affects the nature of the relationship between an indep and dep
var such that the relationship depends on the level of the moderating variable
Like contingency variable in that they indicate when an independent variable is most likely
to be related to a dependent variable
Ex. If bonus only reduce absentee of employees who are not satisfied with their pay and has
no effect on those who are absent but are satisfied with their pay, then pay satisfaction
moderates the effect of the bonus on absentee
Mediating variable: a var that intervenes/explains the relationship b/w indep and dep var
Ex. The reason that bonus reduce absenteeism may be it increases ppl’s motivation
-Measurement of Variables
Reliability: an index of the consistency of a research subject’s responses
Validity: an index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is supposed to measure –
result should not be influenced
Convergent validity: when there’s a strong relationship b/w diff measures of the same variable
– ex. A measure of job satisfaction should be highly correlated to other measures of job
Discriminant validity: when there is a weak relationship b/w measures of diff variables
Ex. Measure of job satisfaction should not relate to measure of job performance
3 Basic Kinds of Research Techniques:
-Observation research: research that examines the natural activities of ppl in an org setting by
listening to what they say and watching what they do
-Difference b/w everyday observations and formal observation: systematic & objective
-Researchers concern the nature of human behaviour and have a set of questions to be answered -
-keep record of events observed; well informed of danger of influencing person being observed and
are trained to draw reasonable conclusions from observation – objective
-Participant Observation
Observational research in which the researcher becomes a functioning member of the org
unit being studied
Adv: potential for secrecy – subjects don’t need to know they are being observed
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