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Chapter 3

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Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
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Chapter Three- Perception, Attribution and Judgement of Others
What is Perception?
Perception Process of interpreting messages of our senses to give order/meaning to the
environment
Helps sort-out/organize complex/varied input received by sense of sight, smell, touch, taste,
hearing
Actions of people frequently based on interpretation of reality given by perceptual system,
rather than reality itself
Key ON Application : Perceptions org. members have of each other
Components of Perception
Three Components
1.Perceiver
2.Target that is being perceived
3.Situational context in which the perception is occurring
The Perceiver
Perceivers experience, needs, emotions, can affect his or perceptions of a target
Experience-one of the most important characteristics past experiences lead the
perceiver to develop expectations, these expectations affect current perception
Needs- unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish
to perceive (ie. Lonely uni. Students my misperceive most innocent action of opposite sex as
flirtation)
Emotions(anger, happiness or fear)-eg. When I am angry about not getting a promotion,
the one who got a promotion comes to comfort me, but I may perceive the consolation as
condescension b/c of my own anger
1.Experience (Key)
Leads to development of expectations that affect current perceptions
2.Needs
Unconsciously influence perceptions
Causes us to perceive what we wish to perceive
3.Emotions
Unpleasant emotions can be defended against by perceptual system
Perceptual Defense
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Perceptual Defense- the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against
unpleasant emotions see what we want to see, hear what we want to hear
Our perceptual system is working ot ensure that we do not see or hear things that are
threatening
The Target
Targets interpretation & addition of meaning to it Involved in perception
Ambiguous targets especially susceptible to interpretation & addition
Perceivers need to resolve these ambiguities
Perceiver doesnt/cant always use all info. given by target
Reduction in ambiguity does not mean greater accuracy b/c perceiver does not or
cannot always use all the info provided by the target
The Situation
Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context influencing perception
Adds information about target
Perceiver and target may be the same, but under different situations, could result in
different perceptions
Social Identity Theory
Social Identity Theory People form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics &
memberships in social categories
Sense of Self composed of:
Personal Identity
Based on our unique personal characteristics: interests, abilities, traits
Social Identity
Our perception that we belong to various social groups ie. Our gender,
nationality, religion, occupation
Categorize ourselves and others to make-sense of & understand social environment
Once the category is chose, we tend to see members of that category as embodying the
most typical attributes of that category (prototypes)
Once we locate ourselves in a social category, we tend to perceive ourselves as
embodying the prototypical characteristics of the category
We develop a sense of who we are and what our values, believes are, and our way of
thinking, acting and feeling
Social categories are rational & comparative
Selection depends on importance & appropriateness
Most typical attributes are embodied by members
Develops sense of self & ways of thinking/acting/feeling
Social identity theory help us understand how the components of the perceptual system
operate in the formation of perceptions
We perceive ppl in terms of attributes and characteristics that we associate w/ their social
category relative to other category
Your perception of others is a function of how you categorize yourself and your target
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If situation changes, so might the categorization and the relation b/t perceiver
and target ie. A medical intern, in hospital, seen by nurses and patients as doctor, in
school, seen by profs as students
Tendency to perceive members of own social categories positive & favorable ways
Helps understanding discrimination & stereotyping
A Model of the Perceptual Process
How info. about target & situation put together to form picture of target?
Jerome Bruner (psychologist) developed useful framework
Framework
Perceiver encounter unfamiliar target (needs info to base perception)
Perceiver is open to info. cues from target & situation
Actively seeks out cues to resolve ambiguity
Encounters familiar cues gradually
Makes basic categorization of target Social Identity Theory
Search/cues becomes less open & more selective
Seeks cues to confirm categorization
Ignores/distorts contradictory cues
As categorization becomes stronger, perceiver ignores or distorts cues that
contradicts
Takes MANY contradictory cues for recategorization
Important Characteristics of Perceptual Process Demonstrated
SELECTIVE
Perceivers do not use all cues
Those cues they use given special emphasis
Perception is efficient, efficiency can both aid and hinder perceptual accuracy
Efficiency Not using all cues Helps/hurts accuracy
CONSTANCY
Tendency for target to be perceived in the same way over time or across situations
CONSISTENCY
Tendency to select/ignore/distort cues to form homogenous picture of target
We strive for consistency in our perception of people
Do not tend to see the same person as both good and bad, or as dependable and
untrustworthy
Distort cues that are discrepant with our general image of person to make cues
consistent with our already established image
Basic Biases in Person Preconception
Primacy & Recency Effects
Primacy Effect Tendency of perceiver to rely on early or first cueswe form out
impressions of others quickly b/c of primacy effect
Form of selectivity
Lasting Effects Constancy
3
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Description
Chapter Three- Perception, Attribution and Judgement of Others What is Perception? Perception Process of interpreting messages of our senses to give ordermeaning to the environment Helps sort-outorganize complexvaried input received by sense of sight, smell, touch, taste, hearing Actions of people frequently based on interpretation of reality given by perceptual system, rather than reality itself Key ON Application : Perceptions org. members have of each other Components of Perception Three Components 1. Perceiver 2. Target that is being perceived 3. Situational context in which the perception is occurring The Perceiver Perceivers experience, needs, emotions, can affect his or perceptions of a target Experience-one of the most important characteristics past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations, these expectations affect current perception Needs- unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive (ie. Lonely uni. Students my misperceive most innocent action of opposite sex as flirtation) Emotions(anger, happiness or fear)-eg. When I am angry about not getting a promotion, the one who got a promotion comes to comfort me, but I may perceive the consolation as condescension bc of my own anger 1. Experience (Key) Leads to development of expectations that affect current perceptions 2. Needs Unconsciously influence perceptions Causes us to perceive what we wish to perceive 3. Emotions Unpleasant emotions can be defended against by perceptual system Perceptual Defense 1 www.notesolution.com
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