Chapter 14 Notes

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13 May 2011
Chapter 14 Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy Notes
The Promotion Mix
promotion mix (marketing communications mix) blend of promotion tools (advertising, public relations, personal selling,
sales promotion, direct marketing) that firm uses to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships
advertising any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor;
includes broadcast, print, Internet, outdoor, and other forms
sales promotion short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service
personal selling personal presentation by firm’s sales force for purpose of making sales and building customer relationships
public relations building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favourable publicity, building up a
good corporate image, and handling or heading off unfavourable rumours, stories, and events
direct marketing direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain an immediate response and
cultivate lasting customer relationships; includes catalogues, telephone marketing, kiosks, Internet, mobile, and more
Integrated Marketing Communications
The New Marketing Communications Landscape
several major factors are changing the face of today’s marketing communications—(1) consumers are changing; (2) market
strategies are changing; and (3) sweeping changes in communications technology are causing remarkable changes in the ways in
which companies and customers communicate with each other
the new communications technologies give companies exciting new media for interacting with targeted consumers
at the same time, they give consumers more control over the nature and timing of messages they choose to send and receive
The Shifting Marketing Communications Model
advertisers are now adding a broad selection of more-specialized and highly targeted media to reach smaller customer segments
with more-personalized, interactive messages, in a media range from speciality magazines, cable TV channels, and video on
demand to Internet catalogues, email, podcasts, cell phones, and online social networks
in all, companies are doing less broadcasting and more narrowcasting
it seems likely that the new marketing communications model will consist of a shifting mix of both traditional mass media and a
wide array of exciting, new, more-targeted, more-personalized media
the challenge for traditional advertisers is to bridge the “media divide” that too often separates traditional creative and media
approaches from new interactive and digital ones
The Need for Integrated Marketing Communications
conflicting messages from different sources can result in confused company images, brand positions, and customer relationships
the problem is that these communications often come from different parts of the company
mixed communications from these sources will result in blurred consumer brand perceptions
integrated marketing communications (IMC) carefully integrating and coordinating the company’s many communications
channels to deliver a clear, consistent, and compelling message about the organization and its products
IMC leads to a total marketing communications strategy aimed at building strong customer relationships by showing how the
company and its products can help customers solve their problems
A View of the Communication Process
today, marketers are moving toward viewing communications as managing the customer relationship over time
because customers differ, communications programs need to be developed for specific segments, niches, and even individuals
communications process should start with audit of all potential touchpoints that target customers may have with firm and brands
to communicate effectively, marketers need to understand how communication works
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two of these elements are the major parties in a communication—the sender (the party sending the message to another party) and
the receiver (the party receiving the message sent by another party)
another two are the major communication tools—the message (the set of symbols that the sender transmits) and the media (the
communications channels through which the message moves from sender to receiver)
four more are major communication functions—encoding (putting thought into symbolic form), decoding (the receiver assigns
meaning to the symbols), response (the reactions of the receiver after being exposed to the message), and feedback (the part of
the receiver’s response communicated back to the sender)
the last element is noise (the unplanned static or distortion during the communication process, which results in the receiver
getting a different message than the one the sender sent) in the system
for a message to be effective, the sender’s encoding process must mesh with the receiver’s decoding process
Steps in Developing Effective Marketing Communications
marketers must do the following: identify the target audience, determine the communication objectives, design a message,
choose the media through which to send the message, select the message source, and collect feedback
Determining the Communication Objectives
buyer-readiness stages stages consumers normally pass through on their way to purchase, including awareness, knowledge,
liking, preference, conviction, and purchase; marketing communicator needs to know where target audience is
the marketing communicator’s target market may be totally unaware of the product, know only its name, or know only a few
things about it; therefore, the communicator must first build awareness and knowledge
once potential buyers about the product, marketers want to move them through successfully stronger stages of feelings including
liking (feeling favourable about the product), preference (preferring the product to competing products), and conviction
(believing that the product is the best for them)
finally, some members of the target market might be convinced about the product but may not quite get around to making the
purchase, therefore, the communicator must lead these consumers to take the final step
actions might include offering special promotional prices, add-ons, rebates, or premiums
Designing a Message
the message should get attention, hold interest, arouse desire, and obtain action (known as the AIDA model)
few messages take consumer all way from awareness to purchase, but AIDA framework suggests desirable qualities of message
the marketing communicator must decide what to say (message content) and how to say it (message structure and format)
Message Content
there are 3 types of appeals: rational (relate to the audience’s self-interest), emotional (attempt to stir up either negative or
positive emotions that can motivate purchase), and moral (directed to the audience’s sense of what is “right” and “proper”)
communicators may use emotional appeals ranging from love, job, and humour to fear and guilt
advocates of emotional messages claim that they attract more attention and create more belief in the sponsor and brand
these days, it seems as though ever company is using humour in its advertising
properly used, humour can capture attention, make people feel good, and give a brand personality
used poorly, it can detract from comprehension, wear out its welcome fast, overshadow the product, or even irritate consumers
moral appeals are often used to urge people to support social causes such as a cleaner environment or aid to the disadvantaged
Message Structure
marketers must also decide how to handle 3 message structure issues—(1) whether to draw a conclusion or leave it to audience;
(2) whether to present the strongest arguments first or last; and (3) whether to present a one-sided argument (mentioning only the
product’s strengths) or a two-sided argument (touting the product’s strengths while also admitting its shortcomings)
usually a one-sided argument is more effective in sales presentations—expect when audiences are highly educated or likely to
hear opposing claims, or when the communicator has a negative association to overcome
Message Format
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