MGMC02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Peripheral Vision, Product Distribution, Habituation

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Published on 2 Aug 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Management (MGM)
Course
MGMC02H3
Chapter 3 Exposure, Attention, and Perception
- Exposure the process by which the consumer comes in physic contact with a stimulus
- Marketing Stimuli information about offerings communicated either by the marketer via ads,
salespeople, brand symbols, packages, signs, prices, and so on or by nonmarketing sources, e.g.
the media or word of mouth
- Factors influencing exposure
o Position of an ad within a medium
Magazine ad: back cover or placed beside articles
Placed within TV programs that interest them
o Product distribution and shelf placement
The more widespread the brand’s distribution is, the greater the likelihood that
consumers will encounter it
More likely to be exposed to products at the end of aisles or those that take up
a lot of shelf space
Placed at locations where consumers spend the most time and must go
E.g. checkout counters
- Selective Exposure
o Consumers, not marketers control whether their exposure to marketing stimuli occurs
or not
Can actively seek certain stimuli and avoid others
o Avoids ads for products that are irrelevant to them and ads where they already know
what they say
o Zipping fast-forwarding through the commercials recorded on a VCR or DVR
o Zapping use of remote control to switch channels during commercial breaks
- Measuring Exposure
o Marketers are very interested in determining which media will generate exposure to
their marketing stimuli and whether the desired exposure rates have actually been
reached
Attention
- Attention the process by which an individual allocates part of his or her mental activity to a
stimulus
- Characteristics of Attention
o Attention is selective
Selective means that we decide what we want to focus on at any one time
We cannot examine all marketing stimuli simultaneously, so we must determine
which one to focus on
Research shows that people pay attention to things they have seen many times
before
o Attention can be divided
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We allocate attention flexibly to meet the demands of things in our
environment
Have the potential to become distracted when one stimulus pulls our attention
from another
o Attention is limited
Consumers inevitably miss some products when they try to pay attention to
many unfamiliar products
Focal and Nonfocal Attention
- Pre-attentive Processing the nonconscious processing of stimuli in peripheral vision
o With preattentive processing, most of our attentional resources are devoted to one
thing, leaving very limited resources for attending to something else
- Hemispheric Lateralization
o Our ability to process information preattentively depends:
Whether the stimulus in peripheral vision is a picture or a word
Whether it is placed in the right or left visual field
Left hemisphere is best at processing units that can be combined (counting,
processing unfamiliar words and forming sentences)
Right = processing music, graphing visual and spatial information, forming
inferences and drawing conclusions
o Right visual field = processed by left side
o Left visual field = processed by right side
- Preattentive processing, brand name liking and choice
o Consumers will like the same brand more if they have processed it preattentively than if
they have not been exposed to it all
o Preattentive processing of the ad affected consumers’ consideration of the product,
even though they had no memory of having seen the ad
How to make an attractive marketing stimulus:
1. Make stimuli personally relevant
a. Make it appeal to your needs, values, emotions or goals
2. Make stimuli pleasant
a. People tel to approach thigns that are inherently pleaseant
i. Attractive models
ii. Using music
iii. Using humor
3. Make stimuli surprising
a. Using novelty
4. Using unexpectedness
a. Placement or content differs from what we are used to, arousing curiosity and causing
us to analyze them further to make a sense of them
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Document Summary

Exposure the process by which the consumer comes in physic contact with a stimulus. Marketing stimuli information about offerings communicated either by the marketer via ads, salespeople, brand symbols, packages, signs, prices, and so on or by nonmarketing sources, e. g. the media or word of mouth. Factors influencing exposure: position of an ad within a medium. Magazine ad: back cover or placed beside articles. Placed within tv programs that interest them: product distribution and shelf placement. The more widespread the brand"s distribution is, the greater the likelihood that consumers will encounter it. More likely to be exposed to products at the end of aisles or those that take up a lot of shelf space. Placed at locations where consumers spend the most time and must go. E. g. checkout counters: consumers, not marketers control whether their exposure to marketing stimuli occurs or not.

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