Chapter 2 notes.docx

20 views5 pages
Published on 2 Aug 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Management (MGM)
Course
MGMC02H3
MGTD13 Chapter 2 Motivation, Ability and Opportunity
- Motivation an inner state of arousal that provides energy needed to achieve a goal
o Engage in behaviours, make decisions, or process information to acquire, use, dispose an offering
o Outcome of a motivation takes a considerable effort
- High motivation leads to more effort in information processing and decision making
- Motivated Reasoning Processing information in a way that allows consumers to reach the conclusion
that they want to reach
o Biased way of thinking
o E.g. go on a diet and think diet products will definitely help us lose weight
- Felt Involvement self reported arousal or interest in an offering, activity or interest (psychological
experience of motivated person)
- Types of Involvement
o Enduring Involvement long term interest in an offering, activity or decision (e.g car enthusiast)
o Situational Involvement temporary interest in an offering, activity or decision, often caused by
situational circumstances
o Cognitive Involvement interest in thinking about and learning information pertinent to an
offering, activity or decision (e.g. related to a goal)
o Affective Involvement interest in expanding emotional energy and evoking deep feelings about
an offering, activity or decision (e.g. listening to music because it gives you intense emotions)
- Objects of involvement product or retail (cars, cosmetics), experiences (sky diving), involvement w/
brands, involvement w/ ads, involvement w/ medium (TV or internet)
- Response Involvement interest in certain decisions and behaviours
o It is important to specify the object of involvement. For example, you may really like a brand but
also like an ad of another brand. However, your brand loyalty will win you over anyways.
What affects motivation?
- Personal relevance - something that has a direct bearing on the self and has potentially significant
consequences or implications for our lives
- Consistency with Self-Concept
o Self concept our mental view of who we are
Helps define who we are and it frequently guides our behaviour
- Values beliefs about what is right, important or good
o If you find something important, you are more likely to be motivated to engage in behaviours
that are consistent with that value.
- Needs An internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal/desired physical or
psychological state
o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization
Egoistic
Social
Safety
Physiological
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Self-actualization the need for food, water and sleep
Safety the need for shelter, protection and security
Social the need for affection, friendship and self-esteem
Egoistic the need for prestige, success, accomplishment and self-esteem
Self-actualization the need for self-fulfillment and enriching experiences
o Needs can be categorized
Social Needs
Externally directed and relate to other individuals
Fulfilling these needs require the presence or actions of other people
Nonsocial Needs
Achievement is not based on other people
Functional Needs
Needs that motivate the search for offerings that solve consumption-related
problems
Symbolic Needs
Needs that relate to how we perceive ourselves, how we are perceived by
others, how we relate to others and the esteem in which we are held by others
Hedonic Needs
Needs that relate to sensory pleasures
Sensory stimulation, cognitive stimulation and novelty = nonsocial hedonic
needs
Needs for reinforcement, sex and play = social hedonic needs
Needs for cognition and stimulation
Mental stimulation = reading (or no mental stimulation = watching TV)
o Characteristics of needs
Needs are dynamic needs are never satisfied, satisfaction is only temporary
Needs exist in a hierarchy several needs can be activated at a time, however needs can
be ordered by importance
Needs can be internally or externally aroused e.g. smelling pizza from your neighbor
Needs can conflict
Approach-avoidance conflict a feeling of conflictedness about acquiring or
consuming an offering that fulfills one need but fails to fulfill another
o E.g. Smoking they feel cool for smoking (need for belonging), but
they know smoking is bad for them (incompatible need for safety)
Approach-approach conflict a feeling of conflictedness about which offering
to acquire when each can satisfy an important but different need
o E.g. Career event vs. basketball game
o Views both options as equally desirable
Avoidance-avoidance conflict a feeling of conflictedness about which
offering to acquire when neither can satisfy an important but different need
o E.g. Going home by yourself or waiting for an hour for a friend to drive
you home
o Both options are undesirable
o Identifying needs
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Document Summary

Mgtd13 chapter 2 motivation, ability and opportunity. Motivation an inner state of arousal that provides energy needed to achieve a goal: engage in behaviours, make decisions, or process information to acquire, use, dispose an offering, outcome of a motivation takes a considerable effort. High motivation leads to more effort in information processing and decision making. Felt involvement self reported arousal or interest in an offering, activity or interest (psychological experience of motivated person) Objects of involvement product or retail (cars, cosmetics), experiences (sky diving), involvement w/ brands, involvement w/ ads, involvement w/ medium (tv or internet) Response involvement interest in certain decisions and behaviours. It is important to specify the object of involvement. For example, you may really like a brand but also like an ad of another brand. However, your brand loyalty will win you over anyways. Personal relevance - something that has a direct bearing on the self and has potentially significant consequences or implications for our lives.

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