MGMC11H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Brand Equity, Brand Awareness, Cybersquatting

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MGMC11 – Chapter 4: Choosing Brand Elements to Build Brand Equity:
-Brand elements (brand identities) – trademark-able devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand
- CBBE model suggests to choose brand elements to:
oEnhance brand awareness
oFacilitate the formation of strong, favourable, and unique associations
oElicit positive brand judgments and feelings
Criteria for Choosing Brand Elements:
-Memorable (offensive strategy and build brand equity)
oEasily recognized and recalled
-Meaningful (offensive strategy and build brand equity)
oDescriptive and persuasive
oGeneral info about the function of the product/service (important for brand awareness and salience)
oSpecific info about particular attributes and benefits of the brand (important for brand image and
positioning)
-Likable (offensive strategy and build brand equity)
oFun and interesting
oRich visual and verbal imagery
oAesthetically pleasing
-Transferable (defensive role for leveraging and maintaining brand equity in cases of opportunities and
constraints)
oMeasures the extent to which the brand element adds to the brand equity for new products or in new
markets for the brand
oWithin and across product categories  Less specific names = more easily it can be transferred across
categories
oAcross geographic boundaries and cultures  dependent on cultural content and linguistic qualities
-Adaptable (defensive role for leveraging and maintaining brand equity in cases of opportunities and constraints)
oFlexible and updatable
-Protectable (defensive role for leveraging and maintaining brand equity in cases of opportunities and
constraints)
oLegally and competitively
oChoose brand elements that can be legally protected internationally
oFormally register them with the appropriate legal bodies
oVigorously defend trademarks from unauthorized competitive infringement
Options and Tactics for Brand Elements:
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- Brand names:
oOften capture the central theme or key associations of a product in a very compact and economical
fashion
oCan be an extremely effective shorthand means of communication
oMost difficult element for marketers to change
oNaming guidelines  must be chosen with the six general criteria (see above)
Brand awareness
Simplicity and ease of pronunciation and spelling
oSimplicity  reduce effort consumers have to make to understand and process
the brand name
oShort names  facilitate recall  easy to encode and store in memory
oEasy to pronounce  encourage WOM exposure & ↓ risk of mispronouncing
oDifficult to pronounce  may require mkting effort to teach consumers
oAlliteration  repetition of consonants
oAssonance  repetition of vowel sounds
oConsonance  repetition of consonants with intervening vowel change
oRhythm  repetition of syllable stress
oOnomatopoeia  words composed of syllables that when pronounced generate
a sound strongly suggestive of the word’s meaning
Familiarity and meaningfulness
oTap into existing knowledge structures  concrete or abstract meanings
oBrand name may also suggest product/service category
oHighly descriptive of product category or its attribute and benefits  restrictive
Differentiated, distinctive, and unique
oImproves brand recognition if brand name is different, distinct, and unique
oDistinctive names makes it easier for consumers to learn intrinsic product info
oMay be:
Seldom-used or atypical words for the product category
Unusual combos of real words
Completely made-up words (should still follow linguistic
rules/conventions)
Brand associations
Explicit and implicit meanings consumers extract from brand name is important
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Can reinforce an important attribute/benefit association of product positioning
Can communicate more abstract considerations
Descriptive brand name  link reinforced attribute/benefit
Brand names reinforcing initial positioning  difficult to link new associations
Can derive meaning from made-up words when desired (sufficiently motivated)
Morpheme – the smallest linguistic unit having meaning
Combos of morphemes  relatively easily inferred or implicit meaning brand names
Individual letters can contain meaning (i.e. x = extreme, on the edge, youth)
Brand names bearing some of the letters from a consumers own name may exhibit a
greater-than-expected preference for the product
Sounds of letters can take meaning
oPlosives – words beginning with phonemic elements (b, c, d, g, k, p, t)
Escape from the mouth more quickly than sibilants
Harsher and more direct
Make names more specific and less abstract
Easily recognized and recalled
oSibilants – words which are sounds like s and soft c
Conjure up romantic, serene images
Often found in names of products such as perfumes
As consonants hardness and vowel pitch ↑ in hypothetical brand names for toilet paper
and household cleaners, consumer perception of the harshness of the product also ↑
oNaming procedures:
Define objectives  in terms of the 6 general criteria noted earlier
Especially define ideal meaning the brand should convey
Recognize the role of the brand within the corporate branding hierarchy and how it
should relate to other brands and products
Understand the role of the brand within the entire mkting program and the target
market
Generate names  any potential sources of names are valid
Screen initial candidates  screen all the names against the branding objectives and marketing
considerations identified in step 1
Apply the test of common sense to produce more a more manageable list
Study candidate names  collect more extensive info about each of the final 5-10 names
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Document Summary

Mgmc11 chapter 4: choosing brand elements to build brand equity: Brand elements (brand identities) trademark-able devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. Cbbe model suggests to choose brand elements to: enhance brand awareness, facilitate the formation of strong, favourable, and unique associations, elicit positive brand judgments and feelings. Memorable (offensive strategy and build brand equity: easily recognized and recalled. Likable (offensive strategy and build brand equity: fun and interesting, rich visual and verbal imagery, aesthetically pleasing. Adaptable (defensive role for leveraging and maintaining brand equity in cases of opportunities and constraints: flexible and updatable. Familiarity and meaningfulness: tap into existing knowledge structures concrete or abstract meanings, brand name may also suggest product/service category, highly descriptive of product category or its attribute and benefits restrictive. Differentiated, distinctive, and unique: improves brand recognition if brand name is different, distinct, and unique, distinctive names makes it easier for consumers to learn intrinsic product info, may be:

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