Chapter 9 notes (What I used to study for final)

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15 Dec 2010
Human Resource Management: set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing,
and maintaining an effective workforce
- huge impact on a firms bottom line performance
- poor HRM can result in spurts of hiring followed by layoffs which is expensive
- the first step of HRM is planning which involves job analysis and forecasting
Job analysis: a detailed study of the specific duties in a particular job and the human qualities
required for that job
- made up of two parts:
Job description: the objectives, responsibilities, and key tasks of a job; the conditions under
which it will be done; its relationship to other positions; and the skills needed to perform it
Job specification: the specific skills, education, and experience needed to perform a job
- once the HRM has this he must use info such as trends in the past HR usage, future
organizational plans and general economic trends to plan what he will do in the future
- requires two tasks:
Forecasting internal supply – the number and type of employees who will be in the firm at some
future date
Forecasting external supply – the number and type of people who will be available for hiring
from the labour market at large
- this allows company’s to spot areas where there will be too many qualified professionals
competing for too few promotions or too few good people available to fill important positions
Replacement charts: an HR technique that lists each important managerial position, who
occupies it, how long he or she will probably stay in it before moving on, and who (by name) is
now qualified or soon will be qualified to move into it
- allows time to find a successor
Employee information systems (skills inventories): computerized systems that contain
information on each employees education, skills, work experience, and career aspirations
- to find information on external supply of labour, HRM must rely on government records
- after comparing future demand and internal supply, managers can manage predicted shortfalls
or overstaffing
- top three characterisitics employers look for: good work ethic, reliability, and willingness to stay
on the job
- once a HR has an idea of its future needs, it needs to start recruiting
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Recruiting: the phase in the staffing of a company in which the firm seeks to develop a pool of
interested, qualified applicants for a position
Internal recruiting: considering present employees as candidates for job openings
- increases morale and keeps high-quality employees motivated
External recruiting: attracting people outside the organization to apply for jobs
- methods include advertising, campus interviews, employment agencies or executive search
firms, union hiring halls, referrals by present employees, job fairs
- another method is internship
Internship: a short-term paid position here students focus on a specific project
- company’s usually hire these interns full-time if their good enough
- once the recruiting process has attracted a pool of applicants, the next step is deciding who to
- the selection process is to gather information from applicants that will predict their job success
and hire those that are most likely to be successful through validation
Validation: the process of determining the predictive value of information
- first step in selection is usually filling out an application form
- candidates must also perform tests that show the likeliness of how successful the person will be
based on how well they perform
- interview is another popular selection for screening candidates
- sometimes a poor predictor because biases that are inherent in the way people perceive and
judge others on first meetings affect evaluation
- askingcurveball question, or questions that are unexpected show how the candidate thinks on
their feet and ensures that they are not just familiar with what questions are to be asked
- other techniques suh as lie detector tests (illegal) and drug-tests (under dire) are also used
- after the selection process occurs, candidates still require further training such as:
Orientation: the initial acquainting of new employees with the company’s policies and programs,
personnel with whom they will interact, and the nature of the job
- poor orientation results in disenchantment, dissatisfaction, anxiety, turnover, and other
employee problems
- positive orientation results in newcomers feelings like part of the team, introducing them to co-
workers quickly, in total ease the transition
- most corporations also provide new hires with background info on the company to help them
better understand the culture
- after orientation, most companies find it effective to train employees on a regular basis
- this requires the need analysis
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