PRICING OBJECTIVES AND TOOLS
-pricing: deciding what the company will receive in exchange for its product
Pricing to Meet Business Obejctives
-pricing objectives: goals that producers hope to attain in pricing products for sale
-companies price their products in objective for proﬁt-maximization
-market share: a companys % of total market sales for a speciﬁc product
-during difﬁcult times, survival may become companys objective
Price Setting Tools
-cost oriented pricing considers the ﬁrm’s desire to make a proﬁt and takes into account the
need to cover production costs
Markup % = markup/sales price
-every dollar made, (if markup is 50), 0.50$ would be gross proﬁt for store.
-variable costs: costs that change w/the number of goods/services produced or sold
-ﬁxed costs: costs unaffected by the # of goods/services produced or sold
-break-even analysis: an assessment of how many units must be sold @ a given price before
the company begins to make a proﬁt
-break even point: the # of units that must be sold @ a given price before the company covers
all of its variable and ﬁxed costs.
-break even point(units) = total ﬁxed costs/ (price - variable cost)
-proﬁt (@0) = total revenue - (total ﬁxed costs + total variable costs)
PRICING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS
-a ﬁrm can set price above/below or @ the price of old product.
-if set above, people think its higher quality
-price leadership: the dominant ﬁrm in the industry establishes product prices and other
companies follow along.
-price skimming: the decision to price a new product as high as possible to earn the maximum
proﬁt on each unit sold
-penetration pricing: the decision to price a new product very low to sell the most units
possible and to build customer loyalty.
-price lining: the practice of offering all items in certain categories @ a limited # of
predetermined price points
-psychological pricing: the practice of setting prices to take advantage of the nonlogical
reactions of consumers to certain types of prices
-odd-even psychological pricing: a form of psychological pricing in which prices are not
stated in even dollar amounts. (e.g. 99.95$ seems less than 100$)
-discount: any price reduction offered by the seller to persuade customers to purchase a product
-cash discount: consumers paying cash rather than credit gets a better deal
-seasonal discounts: lower prices are offered to customers making a purchase @ a time of
year when sales are traditionally low
MGTA04 Chapter 7