Module 2

33 views7 pages
Published on 10 Oct 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Management (MGT)
Course
MGTA35H3
Page:
of 7
Module 2: Adapting your Message to your Audience
Types of audiences:
1. Initial: first to receive the message; routes to other audiences
2. Primary: decides whether to accept recommendations; acts on message
3. Secondary: comments on message or implements recommendations
4. Gatekeeper: has the power to stop the message before it gets to primary
audience
5. Watchdog: has political, social, or economic power; may base future
actions on evaluation of message
Why is audience so important?
Understanding what audience needs/expects, and adapting messages
accordingly successful communication
Both sender and receiver construct meaning together ideally should agree
on meaning, significance of message
Sender must: Encode in words transmit message via channel (TV, memos,
phone etc.)
Receiver must: Perceive message (physical ability) decode (make meaning
from symbols)
Feedback: receiver’s response; may be direct and immediate or indirect and
delayed; consists of both verbal and nonverbal symbols
Noise: influences every part of communication process
1. Physical
2. Psychological incl. emotional, intellectual or psychological interference
ex: dislike speaker, being distracted, preconceived notion of issue,
prejudices
Channel overload: occurs when channel cannot handle all the messages that
are being sent
Information overload: occurs when more messages are transmitted than the
human receiver can handle; increasingly constant problem due to technology
Different frames of reference: interpret messages in the light of our
perceptions, based on personal experiences, our cultures and subcultures,
and the time in which we live
- causes sender and/or receiver to misperceive, misinterpret, choose badly,
encode poorly or choose inappropriate channels
What do I need to know about my audience?
In general, must use:
1. Empathy: the ability to put yourself in someone else’s shoes, to feel with
that person; requires being audience-centred because the audience is not
just like you
2. Critical thinking: involves gathering as much info as you can about
someone or something, and then making decisions based on that info
- Need to use research, knowledge about people/organizations to predict
likely responses
Factors to consider when analyzing individuals and members of groups:
- Prior knowledge avoid “mind-numbing” details, remind readers of
relevant facts
- Demographic factors
oDemographic characteristics: can be objectively quantified, or
measured, and include age, gender, religion, education level,
income, location etc.
oUsed to identify economic and social trends
oData obtained by surveying customers, clients, donors, or
purchasing from marketing companies
- Personality type
1. Introvert-extrovert: the source of one’s energy; introverts get energy
from within, extroverts draw energy by interacting with other people
2. Sensing-intuitive: how someone gathers info; sensing types gather
step-by-step through senses, intuitive types see relationships among
ideas
3. Thinking-feeling: how someone makes decisions; thinking types use
objective logic, feeling types look for “feel right”
4. Judging-perceiving: the degree of certainty someone needs; judging
types like organization and do one task at a time, perceptive types like
possibilities, keep options open, may juggle between tasks
- Values and beliefs
oPsychographic characteristics: qualitative rather than quantitative
and include values, beliefs, goals, and lifestyles
oGeodemographic data: used to analyze and appeal to audiences
according to where they live and what they buy
- Past behaviour
Factors to consider when analyzing people in organizations:
- Strongly influenced by perceptions and expectations of the groups to
which they belong
- Discourse community: a group of people who share assumptions about
their particular culture and values: what to wear; how to behave; what
topics to discuss and how to discuss them; what channels; formats; and
styles to use; and what constitutes evidence
- members create the affiliation, rules, and norms through accepted verbal
and nonverbal symbols (discourse)
- each person is part of several discourse communities
- Groups include all communities with which your audience identifies
- Members communicate through symbols that may or may not be
exclusive to their group, but which identify them as members of that
group
- Organization’s culture is expressed through its values, attitudes, and
philosophies

Document Summary

Module 2: adapting your message to your audience. Initial: first to receive the message; routes to other audiences. Need to use research, knowledge about people/organizations to predict likely responses. Factors to consider when analyzing individuals and members of groups: Prior knowledge avoid mind-numbing details, remind readers of relevant facts. Judging-perceiving: the degree of certainty someone needs; judging types like organization and do one task at a time, perceptive types like possibilities, keep options open, may juggle between tasks. Values and beliefs: psychographic characteristics: qualitative rather than quantitative and include values, beliefs, goals, and lifestyles, geodemographic data: used to analyze and appeal to audiences according to where they live and what they buy. Factors to consider when analyzing people in organizations: Strongly influenced by perceptions and expectations of the groups to which they belong. Members create the affiliation, rules, and norms through accepted verbal and nonverbal symbols (discourse) each person is part of several discourse communities.