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VPMA99H3 (11)
Andy Lee (11)
Chapter 22

Chapter 22 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Music and Culture
Andy Lee

Chapter 22 The European Mainstream in the Early Twentieth Century The First Modern Generation Claude Debussy -French composer -rhetorical understatement -draw from French tradition a preference for indirect, tasteful, and restrained expression -influenced by Russian style, medieval music, and Asian music -create musical images through motives, harmony, exotic scales (whole-tone, octatonic, and pentatonic scales), and instrumental timbre -use of chromatic and whole-tone chords, absence of resolution -maintain a tonal focus, key center -does not follow the conventional tonal relationship between chord -create feeling of detached observation -piano pieces suggest a picture -element of instrumental timbre in orchestral music -a particular instrument is associated with a certain motive -different musical layers are separated through tone colour -large orchestra that is not used to make a loud sound but offers a great variety of tone colours and textures Three Nocturnes: Nuages (Clouds) -subdued, imagist instrumentation -3 sections in modified ABA form -begin with oscillating pattern of 5 and 3 that creates impression of movement -no harmonic direction -analogy for slowly moving clouds -the pattern in the A section features different tone colours pitches, changing into series of parallel triads or 9 chords -in A section, pattern disappears, giving the impression of dispersing clouds -English-horn motive quickly rises and slowly falls through segment of octatonic scale -English horn sometimes omits repeats some of its final notes -motive never develops or changes -English horn does not play any other thing, other than motive -complete identification between timbre and motive -musical images lend coherence to music and convey a sense of stillness and contemplation Tonal and Post-Tonal Music Arnold Schoenberg -continue German classical tradition www.notesolution.com
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