VPMB82 Chapter 21

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Music and Culture
Ken Mc Leod

Chapter 21 Music in the Later Nineteenth Century Europe Nationalism and the Classical tradition in AmericaPreludeNationalismemphasis on native literarylinguistic traditionsinterest in folkloreenthusiasm for patriotismcraving for independent identitydominance of German music was a potential threat to national cultural identityThe AustroGermanHugo Wolfadapted Wagners method to German Liedideal of equality between words and music derived from Wagners music dramasWagners notion of collective artwork achieving fusion of poetry and music voice and pianovocal line adapts Wagners arioso style presenting speechlike rhythm and pitch contourcontinuity is sustained by instrumental part rather than voice as in Wagners operachromatic voiceleading appoggiaturas anticipations and wandering tonalitymusic is reflection of text in declamation and in emotionGustav Mahlergreat master of son for voice and orchestrasymphonies are all programmatic in conceptconvey a sense of life experience telling a story or depicting a sceneuse of styles and rhythms of Austrian folk songs and dance suggesting nostalgia for rural scenes and simpler timespresence of pictorial details materials borrowed from his own songslike Beethoven use of voices in symphoniesunusual instrumentation require enormous number of performersgreat imagination in combining instrumentsdespite large size of orchestra delicate effects are produced by selecting different chamberorchestra groupings from the large orchestraKindertotenlieder Songs on the Death of Childrenorchestral song cyclebased on poems of Friedrich Ruckerttransparency of chamber music through spare use of instrumentharmony intensifies emotion through stark contrasts of dissonance with consonance and chromaticism with diatonicismthin texture simple melodies and rhythms suggest understated restraintemotional mismatch between text and music heightens ironysunrise was set to descending D minor melodymisfortune was sung to rising chromatic D major
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