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Chapter 7

NROB60 - Chapter 7 (Lecture 2).docx

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Janelle Leboutillier

NROB60 Chapter 7 (Lecture 2) Chapter 7 The Structure of the Nervous System (Lecture 2) Gross Organization of the Mammalian Nervous System  Two divisions to all mammal nervous systems: central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) Anatomical References  ^Directions in the brain/body  Anterior/rostral: direction towards the nose  Posterior/caudal: direction towards the back  Dorsal: direction pointing up  Ventral: direction point down  Bilateral symmetry: characteristic of the right side of the brain and spinal cord is a mirror image of the left side  Midline: invisible line running down the middle of the nervous system  Medial: structures closer to the midline  Lateral: structures farther away from the midline  Ipsilateral: two structures that are on the same side of the midline (right ear is ipsilateral to the right eye)  Contralateral: structures that are opposite sides of midline  Section: a slice of the brain; to slice: to section o Anatomist lingo ^  Standard approach to section is to make cuts along one of the three anatomical planes of section o Include sagittal, coronal and frontal  Mid-sagittal plane: plane of the section resulting from splitting the brain into equal right and left halves  Sagittal plane: sections parallel to the mid-sagittal plane  Horizontal plane: parallel to the ground o Split brain into dorsal and ventral parts  Coronal plane: perpendicular to the ground and to the sagittal plane o Splits brain into anterior and posterior parts The Central Nervous System  Central nervous system (CNS): The brain (including the retinas) and spinal cord o Brain: The part of the CNS contained in the skull consisting of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem and retinas o Spinal cord: part of the CNS in the vertebral column  Three parts that are common to all mammals o Cerebrum o Cerebellum o Brain stem The Cerebrum AKA telencephalon  Rostral – most and largest part of the brain  Split down the middle into two cerebral hemispheres  Cerebral hemispheres: The two sides of the cerebrum, derived from the paired telencephalic vesicles  Sagittal fissure: deep fissure that separates cerebrum into cerebral hemispheres  Right cerebral hemispheres – receives sensation from, and controls movements of the left side of the body  Left cerebral hemispheres - receives sensation from, and controls movements of the right side of the body NROB60 Chapter 7 (Lecture 2) The Cerebellum  Cerebellum: structure derived from the rhombencephalon o Attached to the brain stem at the pons o Lies behind the cerebrum  Contains as many neurons as both cerebrum despite small size  Is a movement control center that has connections with cerebrum and spinal cord  Left of cerebellum deals with movements of left side  Right of cerebellum deals with movement of right side The Brain Stem  Forms a stalk from which the
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