Textbook Notes (363,103)
Canada (158,195)
Neuroscience (289)
NROB60H3 (151)
Chapter 7

NROB60 - Chapter 7 (Lecture 3).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 7 Lecture 3 The Cranial Nerves  Cranial Nerves  12 pairs of cranial nerves that arise from the brain stem and innervate (mostly) the head  Each cranial nerve has a name and a number associated with it  Some are part of the CNS, others are part of the somatic PNS and others are part of the visceral PNS  Many cranial nerves contain complex mixture of axons that perform differnet functions The Meninges  The CNS (part of nervous system encased in the skull and vertebral column) does not come in direct contact with the overlying bone  Meninges: o Three membranes collectively that together protect the CNS  Dura mater: the outermost covering o Dura forms a tough, inelastic bag that surrounds the brain and spinal cord  Arachnoid membrane: just under the dura o Has an appearance and consistency of a spider web o If a blood vessel passing through the dura are ruptured, blood can collect here and form subdural hematoma o Buildup of fluid in this subdural space (between dura and arachnoid) can disrupt brain function by compressing parts of the CNS  Treated by drilling a hole in the skull and draining blood  Pia mater: thin membrane that adheres closely to the surface of the brain o Along here runs many blood vessels that ultimately dive into the substance of the underlying brain o Pia is separated from arachnoid by a fluid-filled space (subarachnoid space) that is filled with salty clear liquid (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF))  The brain is essential floating inside the head in in this thin layer of CSF The Ventricular System  Ventricular system: constituted of the fluid-filled caverns and canals inside the brain  CSF runs through this system  CSF is produced by a special tissue called choroid plexus in ventricles of cerebral hemisphere  CSF flows from paired ventricles of the cerebrum to a series of connected, unpaired cavities at the core of the brain stem  CSF exits the ventricular system and enters the subarachnoid space by way of small openings (apertures) located near where the cerebellum attaches to the brain stem  In the subarachnoid space, CSF is absorbed by the blood vessels at special structures called arachnoid villi o If normal flow of CSF is disrupted, brain damage can result Image of the Living Brain 
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