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NROB60H3 (151)
Chapter 7


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Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 7 The Structure of the Nervous SystemGross Organization of the Mammalian Nervous System The nervous system of all mammals has two divisions the central nervous system CNSthe peripheral nervous system PNS Anatomical ReferencesAnterior rostral front posterior caudal back dorsal pointing up ventral pointing downBilateral symmetry the right side of the brainspinal cord is the mirror image of the left side Midline the invisible line that runs down the middle of the nervous system Medial structures close to the midline lateral structures farther away from the midline o Nose is medial to the eyeseyes are medial to the ears etc Ipsilateral 2 structures on the same side contraleteral structures on the opposite sides of the midline A slice is a section to slice is to sectionThe standard approach to cut into the brain is to make cuts parallel to one of the 3 anatomical planes of section o The plane of the section resulting from splitting the brain intoequal rightleft halves is called the midsagittal plane sections parallel to the midsagittal plane are in the sagittal planeThe horizontal plane is parallel to the ground split the brain into dorsalventral parts single section in this plane could pass through both the eyes and the ears The coronal plane is perpendicular to the groundto the sagittal plane splits the brain into anteriorposterior parts single section in this plane could pass through both eyes or both ears but not through all four at same timeThe Central Nervous System The central nervous system CNS consists of the parts of the nervous system that are encased in boneo the brain lies entirely within the skullthe spinal cordSide view of the rat brain reveals 3 parts are common with mammals cerebrum cerebellum and brain stemThe CerebrumRostalmostlargest part of the brain is the cerebrumIt is clearly split down the middle into two cerebral hemispheres separated by the deep sagittal fissure The right cerebral hemisphere receives sensations fromcontrols movements of the left side of the body similarly w the left cerebral hemisphere concerned with sensations and movements on right side of the bodyThe CerebellumLies behind the cerebrumcontains as many neurons as both cerebral hemisphere combined Primarily a movement control centre that has extensive connections w the cerebrumthe spinal cord Contrast to the cerebral hemispheres left side of the cerebellum is concerned w movements of the left side of the bodythe right side of the cerebellum is concerned w movements of the right sideThe Brain Stem Best observed in midsagittal view of the brain Brain stem forms the stalk from which the cerebral hemispheresthe cerebellum sproutComplex nexus of fibrescells that in part serves to relay info from the cerebrum to the spinal cordcerebellumvice versa Also the site where vital functions are regulated like breathing consciousnessthe control of body tempBrain stem considered most primitive part of mammalian brain survive damage to the cerebrumcerebellum but damage to the brain stem usually means rapid death The Spinal CordEncased in the bony vertebral columnis attached to the brain stemMajor conduit of info from the skin jointsmuscles of the body to the brainvice versaTransection of spinal cordanesthesia lack of feeling in the skin and paralysis of the muscles in the parsts of the body caudal to cut Paralysis doesnt mean muscles cant function but cannot be controlled by the brain
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