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NROB60H3 (151)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Neurotransmitter systems

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

CHAPTER 6NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS y Cholinergic synapses use Ach y Noradrenergic synapses uses NE y Glutamatergic synapse uses glutamate y GABAergic synapses use GABA y Peptidergic synapses use peptidesStudying neurotransmitter systems y Criteria that must be met for a molecule to be considered a NT 1 The molecule must be synthesized and stored in the presynaptic neuron 2 The molecule must be released by the presynaptic axon terminal upon stimulation 3 The molecule when experimentally applied must produce a response in the postsynaptic cell that mimics the response produced by the release of NT from the presynaptic neuron y Two most important techniques used today to satisfy the criteria are a Immunocytochemistryanatomically localize particular molecules to particular cells Method uses labeled antibodies to identify the location of molecules within cellsThe molecule of interest a NT candidate is injected into an animal causing an immune response and the generation of antibodiesBlood is withdrawn from the animal and the antibodies are isolated from the serumThe antibodies are tagged with a visible marker and applied to sections of brain tissue The antibodies label only those cells that contain the NT candidate b In situ hybridizationconforming that a cell synthesizes a particular protein or peptideStrands of mRNA consist of nucleotides arranged in a specific sequence Each nucleotide will stick to one other complementary nucleotide In the method of in situ hybridization a synthetic probe is constructed containing a sequence of complementary nucleotides that will allow it to stick to the mRNA If the probe is labeled the location of cells containing the mRNA will be revealedy Autoradiography is a technique for viewing the distribution of radioactivityy A specific set of cells or axons can be stimulated while taking samples of the fluids bathing their synaptic targets can then be tested to see if it mimics the effect of the intact synapses and then the sample can be chemically analyzed to reveal the structure of the active moleculey Microionophoresis is a method used to assess the postsynaptic actions of a transmitter candidateMethod enables a researcher to apply drugs or NT candidates in very small amounts to the surface of neurons The response generated by the drug can be compared to those generated by synaptic stimulationy If ionophoretic application of the molecule causes electrophysiological changes that mimic the effects of transmitter released at the synapse and if it meets the other criteria then the molecule and the transmitter usually are considered to be the same chemical
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