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Neuroscience (289)
NROB60H3 (151)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - NT Systems

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 6Neurotransmitter Systems 167200 Introduction1st molecule as NT was AchcholinergicAmine NT NEnoradrenaline is noradrenergicGlutamatergic synapses that use glutamateGABAergic synapses that use GABAPeptidergic synapses that use peptidesStudying Neurotransmitter SystemsCertain criteria to be NT 1 Molecule must be synthesized and sorted in presynaptic neuron 2 Molecule must be released by presynaptic axon terminal upon stimulation 3 Molecule must produce response in postsynaptic cell that mimics response produced by release of NT form presynaptic neuronLocalization of Transmitters and TransmitterSynthesizing Enzymes2 important techniques used today are immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridizationUsed to anatomically localize particular molecule to particular cellsImmunocytochemistry y Once NT is chemically purified its injected into bloodstream of animalStimulates immune response y Immune responsegeneration of large proteins called antibodies bind to specific sites of foreign molecule y Antibody molecules can be recovered from blood sample of immunized animal and chemically tagged with colorful marker y Immunocytochemistry can be used to localize any molecule for which a specific antibody can be generated Useful forIn Situ Hybridization confirming that cell synthesizes a particular protein or peptide y Unique mRNA transcript consists of 4 different nucleic acids linked together in various sequences to form a strandif sequence of nucleic acids in strand of mRNA is known it is possible to construct in lab a complementary strand will stickprobe and process where probe bonds to mRNA is called hybridization y In situ hybridization probes are labeled by making them radioactivetechnique for viewing the distribution of radioactivity is autoradiographyImmunocytochemistry is method for viewing location of specific moleculesIn situ hybridization is method for localizing specific mRNA transcripts for proteinsStudying Transmitter ReleaseMost regions of CNS contain diverse mixture of intermingled synapses using different NTsResearcher must be content wstimulating many synapses in region of brain and collecting and measuring all the chemicals that are released1 is in vitroslices are bathed in solution containing high Klarge depolarizationstimulating transmitter release from axon terminals in tissue need to look for Ca2 ions present in bathing solution
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