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Janelle Leboutillier

Iron and Copper Metabolism 1252012 44200 PM Both redox active have intimately intertwined metabolic pathways Dysfunction in organismal or cellular regulation of either of these metals result in significant and sometimes fatal diseases Iron y Two oxidation states FeII and FeIII y Poorly soluble at neutral pH in air y FeII rapidly oxidizes to FeIII under these same conditions and generates free radicals y Iron elevates at birth drops after a few months y Average iron uptake is 15mgday no mechanism for iron excretion y Heme is the best source of dietary iron o The FeII chelate is better than the FeIII chelate as a source of iron y One liter of blood contains 400mg of iron y Normal Hematocrits o Newborn 1422 o Children 2225 o Adults 1317 y Inherited diseases from altered iron metabolism o Hemochromatosis cardiac failure diabetes arthritis o Xlinked Sideroblastic Anemia o Freidreichs Ataxia y Some diseases in which iron loading is observed o Alzheimers o Huntingtons o Parkinsons o Thalassemia o Porphyria cutanea tarda o Diabetes o Aceruloplasminemia y Disorders of iron metabolism o Disease states from either iron deficiency or iron overload o Iron deficiency may result in defects in developing embryos and small childrenIn adults iron deficiency results in anemia o Iron overload can be toxic when the overload is acuteChronic iron overload can result in a condition named hemochromatosis y Anemias o Typical symptoms of anemia are fatigue lethargy dizziness o May be cause by variety of factors one being iron deficiencyIron deficiency defined as inadequate iron storesIron deficiency may result from a defect in mucosal iron uptake or a loss of body stores like GI bleedingDecreased uptake may result from genetic or dietary causes o Three stagesMild iron stores are mobilized and depleted increased mucosal uptake unable to respond to challengeIron deficient erythropoiesis transferrin increased plasma iron decreased 15 decreased RBC formationIrondeficiency anemia Hb decreased ineffective erythropoeisis presence of abnormal RBCs o Other forms of AnemiaMegaloblastic anemiaImpaired DNA synthesisB12 deficiencyAplastic anemiaCellular depletion and fatty replacement of bone marrow usually environmental some geneticHemolytic anemiaShortened RBC survivalInfection anemia of inflammation or hemoglobinopathy y Iron cycling o Plasma levels of iron are closely regulated o 20mg to bone marrow daily for incorporation into hemoglobin o 12mg daily taken up by duodenal enterocytes o These stores in enterocytes as ferritin are eliminated when enterocytes are sloughed at the end of their life cycles
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