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Chapter 44

Neuroscience chapter 44

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 14 Group Cohesion and ConformityIINTRODUCTIONGroups are important because they provide social support a cultural framework to guide performance and rewards and resources of all kindsIIWHAT IS A GROUPgroup a social unit that consists of two or more persons and that has all of the following attributeso1 membership belonging to the group and must be recognized by other members as belonging to the groupo2 interaction among members they must communicate and influence one anothero3 Goals shared by members interdependent with respect to goal attainmento4 Shared Norms a set of expectations that place limits on members bx and guide actionGroups are not just collections of individuals rather organized in systems in which the relations among individuals are structured and patterned oNot all social units involving two or more persons are groupsGroup Cohesionrefers to the extent to which members of a group desire to remain in that group and resist leaving itHighly cohesive group maintain a firm hold over its members time energy loyalty and commitmentCohesive groups marked by strong ties among members a positive emotional feeling about membership and by a tendency for members to perceive events in similar terms Interaction among these groups will typically have a positive upbeat character and reflect a we feelingThe Nature of Group CohesionDifferent motive for joining a group lead to different levels and kinds of cohesion among the membersOne of the fundamental types of group cohesion is social cohesionoHas it if members stay in the group primarily because they like one another as persons and desire to interact with one anotheroAll things being equal social cohesion greater when group members are similar increase likingOther type of group cohesion is task cohesionoHigh task cohesion groups remain together primarily because they are heavily involved with the groups tasksoTask cohesion will be greater if members find the groups tasks intrinsically valuable interesting and challenging oAlso greater if the groups objectives are clearly definedoGroups that succeed at achieving their goals often have higher task cohesion than groups that fail repeatedlyConsequences of Group Cohesioncohesion affect the amount of interaction among group members
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