Textbook Notes (363,232)
Canada (158,276)
Neuroscience (289)
NROB60H3 (151)
lebout (3)
Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough

CHAPTER 1 Neuroscience Past Present and Future The Origins of NeuroscienceTime Period View of the Brain Prehistoric ancestors7000 years agotrepanation boring holes into the skull o performed on live subjects skulls show signs of healing and used to treat headaches or mental disorders gave the evil spirits and escape routeancient Egypt 5000 years ago heart not the brain considered to be the seat of the soul and the repository of memories as well as the seat of consciousness and thought Ancient GreeceGreek scholars believed that the brain was the organ of sensationHippocrates the father of Western Medicine brain involved in sensation and is the seat of intelligenceAristotle Greek philosopher disagreed with Hippocrates believed that the heart was the center of intellect o brain was a radiator for the cooling of blood that was overheated by the seething heart o rational temperament of humans is the result of the large cooling capacity of the brainRoman EmpireGalen agreed with the Hippocratic view of brain function o performed animal dissections tried to deduce function from the structure of the cerebrum and cerebellum of a sheep Cerebrum soft recipient of sensations sensations have to be imprinted onto the brain cerebellumhard commands the muscles o cut open the brain and found hollow ventricles filled with fluid body functioned according to a balance of four vital fluids or humorsMovements due to the movement of fluidhumors to or from the brain ventricles via the nerves believed to be hollow tubes like the blood vessels o view prevailed for more than 1500 years thRenaissance19 centuryAndreas Vesalius anatomist added detail to the structure of the brain th Early 17 century hydraulicallycontrolled mechanical devices supported the notion that the brain could be machinelike in function fluid causes movement of limbsRn Descartes French mathematician and philosopher advocate of fluidmechanical theory of brain function believed that theory could account for the brain and behaviour of animals but not the full range of human behaviours because humans possess intellect and a Godgiven soul o brain mechanisms control human behaviour that resembles those of animalso mental capacities of humans exist outside the brain in the mind o mind spiritual entity that receives sensations and commands movements by communicating with the machinery of the brain via the pineal gland o mindbrain problem thth 17 and 18 century other scientists examined the substance of the brain o brain tissue divided into two parts white matter structurefunction association continuous with the nerves of the body so must contain the fibers that bring information to and from the grey matter grey matter tho end of 18 century gross anatomy of nervous system discovered o discovered that CNS brain and spinal cord and PNSnetwork of nerves that course through the body o IMPORTANT observation that the same general pattern of bumps called gyri and grooves called sulci and fissures can be identified on the surface of the brain in every individual and allows the parceling of the cerebrum into lobes and is the basis for speculation that different functions may be localized to different bumps on the brain th19 CenturyLuigi Galvani and Emil du BoisReymond muscles can be caused to twitch when nerves are stimulated electrically and the brain itself can generate electricity o nerves are wires that conduct electrical signals to and from the brain instead of the fact that nerves communicate with the brain by the movement of fluidbidirectional communication along the same nerves suggested due to the fact that when a nerve in the body is cut there is usually a loss of both sensation and movement in the affected regionwithin each nerve there are many nerve fibers thin filaments which can serve as individual wires carrying information in a different direction1810 Charles Bell and Francois Magendieo before nerves attach to the spinal cord the fibers divide into two branches or roots dorsal root enters toward the back of the spinal cord and the ventral root
More Less

Related notes for NROB60H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.