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Neuroscience (289)
NROB60H3 (151)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2: Neurons and Glia

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 2 Neurons and Glia IntroductionNeurophilosophy once fully understand the individual and concerted actions of brain cells will be able to understand mental abilities10x as many glia as neurons Neuron sense changes in the environment communicate these changes to other neurons and command bodys response GliaGlial cells contribute to brain function by insulating supporting and nourishing neuronsThe Neuron DoctrineCell size 001005mm Needed compound microscope thin slices microtome hardener of tissue formaldehyde selective stainsHistology the microscopic study of the structure of tissues Franz nissl class of basic dyes Nissl stain to stain nucleus of all cells and clumps of material surrounding nuclei of neurons Nissl bodies o Distinguishes neurons and glia from one another and allows study of cytoarchitecture arrangement of neurons in different parts of brainThe Golgi StainCamillo Golgi o Golgi stain silver chromate solution stains the whole of certain cells incl Axons o Cell body aka soma aka perikaryon o Neurites thin tubes axons one with uniform diameter branches at right angels and dendrites a couple mm and taper o Reticular theory neurites are fused together to form continuous net that is the elementary unit Cajals ContributionSantiago Ramon y Cajal used golgi stain to work out circuitry of braino Neuron doctrine brain follows cell theory and neurons communicate by contact not continuity Discovered this was true with electron microscopes in 1950s Advances in MicroscopyLimit of resolution for the unaided eye is 1mm Neurons have diameter 20micrometers Light microscope limit of resolution 01 micrometersElectron microscope limit of resolution 01 nmo Uses electron beam instead of light New techniques of using laser beams as computer images which doesnt require tissue fixation so scientists can look at live brain tissue The Prototypical Neuron The SomaSoma 20 micrometers
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