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Chapter 6

Chapter 6: Neurotransmitter Systems

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Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 6 Neurotransmitter Systems Introduction o Cholinergic Dale describes cells that produce and release Acho Noradrenergic Dale describes neurons that use amine norepinephrine NE o Glutamatergic use glutamate o GABAergic use GABA o Peptidergic use peptideso Cholinergic system Ach and all the molecular machinery associated with it Studying Neurotransmitter Systems o CriteriaMolecule must be synthesized and stored in presynaptic neuronMust be released by presynaptic axon terminal upon stimulationWhen experimentally applied must produce a response in postsynaptic cell that mimics response produced by release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic neuron Localization of Transmitters and TransmitterSynthesizing Enzymes o ImmunocytochemistryUsed to anatomically localize particular molecules to particular cells Neurotransmitter is purified and injected into bloodstream where it stimulates immune response that generates specific antibodies Can then recover antibodies and tag them then use the tagged antibodies to see which cells contain the transmitter candidateCan be used for any molecule for which a specific antibody can be generated Can also be used to localize synthesizing enzymeso In Situ HybridizationCreate a probe complementary strand of mRNA chemically label by making it radioactiveit and allow it to stick to mRNA for a particular peptide Hybridization the process by which the probe binds to the mRNAThen wash away probe and search for neurons containing labelAutoradiography Detect radioactivity by laying tissue on sheet of film sensitive to radioactive emissions film is then developed and image of cells appear as clusters of small dots Studying Transmitter Releaseo Sometimes can stimulate cells while taking sample of fluid bathing targets then test samples to see if it mimics effect then chemically analyze it to reveal structure o In CNS however it impossible to stimulate single population of synapse with only one neurotransmitterTake brain slices kept alive in vitro and bath with high K that causes depolarization stimulating transmitter releaseMust also only be released when Ca is presentStill cannot be sure may have been released as a secondary consequence of synaptic activationMost difficult to prove in CNS Studying Synaptic Mimicry
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