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Neuroscience (289)
NROB60H3 (151)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 6 Notes - In addition to the molecule itself, a neurotransmitter system includes all the molecular machinery responsible for transmitter synthesis, vesicular packaging, reuptake and degradation, and transmitter action - Dale termed the neurons that use the acetylcholine transmitter = cholinergic - Noradrenergic: Neurons that use the amine neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) Elements of Neurotransmitter Systems - Presynaptic axon terminal o Neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes o Synaptic vesicle transporters o Reuptake transporters o Degradative enzymes - Postsynaptic Dendrite o Transmitter-gated ion channels o G-protein-coupled receptors o G-proteins o G-protein-gated ion channels o Second messenger cascades Criteria For A Molecule To Be Considered A Neurotransmitter: 1) The molecule must be synthesized and stored in the presynaptic terminal 2) The molecule must be released by the presynaptic axon terminal upon stimulation 3) The molecule, when experimentally applied, must produce a response in the postsynaptic cell that mimics the response produced by the release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron Localization of Transmitters and Transmitter-Synthesizing Enzymes - First step: Show that the molecule is localized in and synthesized by particular neurons o Two techniques in studying this: Immunochemistry Method for viewing location of specific moleculesproteins in sections of brain tissues In Situ Hybridization Method for localizing specific mRNA transcripts for proteins Immunochemistry: Used to anatomically localize particular molecules to particular cells - Once NT has been chemically purified, it is injected into the bloodstream of animal, where it stimulates an immune response - Immune response Generates large proteins called antibodies - Antibodies can bind tightly to specific sites on the foreign molecule (e.g. the transmitter candidate) - Best antibodies bind very tightly to the transmitter of interest - Antibody molecules can be recovered from a blood sample of the immunized animal and chemically tagged with a colourful marker and applied to sections of brain tissue - Antibodies label only those cells that contain NT candidate - Immunochemistry can be used to localized any molecule for which a specific antibody can be generated, including the synthesizing enzymes for transmitter candidates www.notesolution.com
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